Histology

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Author:
HappyJedi7
ID:
144078
Filename:
Histology
Updated:
2012-03-26 22:11:17
Tags:
Bio 242
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Description:
Ch 40, tissues
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  1. epithelial tissue
    • occurs as sheets of cells
    • cover the outside of the body; lines organs and cavities within the bodies
    • functions as a barrier against mechanical injury, pathogens, fluid loss
    • polar (2 sides)
    • form active interfaces with the environment
    • cuboidal, simple squamous, stratified squamous, simple columnar, pseudostratified columnar
  2. polar epithelial cells
    • 2 sides are apical surface and basal surface
    • apical surface faces the lumen and may have specialized projections
    • basal surface is attached to the basal lamina, which separates the epithelium from the underlying tissue
  3. cuboidal
    • specialized for secretion
    • kidney tubules and glands (thyroid, salivary)
  4. simple squamous
    • single layer of cells
    • thin and leaky
    • functions in exchange of material by diffusion
    • lines blood vessels and the air sacs of lungs
  5. simple columnar
    • found where secretion or active absorption is important
    • lines the intestines
  6. pseudostratified columnar
    • single layer of cells varying in height
    • ciliated cells form a mucous membrane that lines portions of the respiratory tract
  7. stratified squamous
    • multilayered and regenerated rapidly
    • found on surfaces subject to abrasion
    • outer skin and linings of the mouth, anus, vagina
  8. connective tissue
    • sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
    • holds many tissues and organs together and in place
    • consists of a web of fibers embedded in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation
    • collagenous, reticular, elastic fibers
    • loose and fibrous connective, cartilage, bone, blood, adipose
  9. collagenous fibers
    provide strength and flexibility
  10. reticular fibers
    join connective tissue to adjacent tissues
  11. elastic fibers
    makes tissues elastic
  12. loose connective tissue
    • binds epithelia to underlying tissue and holds organs in place
    • includes all three fibers
    • found in skin and throughout body
  13. fibrous connective tissue
    • dense with collagenous fibers
    • found in tendons and ligaments
  14. bone
    • ossified
    • osteoblasts (deposit a matrix of collagen)
    • repeating units called osteons
    • mineralized by phosphate, magnesium, calcium ions
  15. blood
    • liquid exterior matrix called plasma
    • erythrocytes (RBC)
    • leukocytes (WBC)
    • platelets
  16. adipose tissue
    • specialized loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose cells distributed throughout the matrix
    • pads an insulates
    • stores fuel as fat molecules
  17. cartilage
    • collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery protein-carbohydrate matrix called chondroitin sulfate
    • chondrocytes secrete collagen and chondroitin sulfate
    • replaced by bone as the embryo matures
    • disks act as cushions between vertebrae
  18. muscle tissue
    • responsible for nearly all types of muscle movement
    • consists of actin and myosin filaments, contraction proteins
    • skeletal, smooth, cardiac
  19. skeletal muscle
    • attached to bones by tendons
    • striated
    • responsible for voluntary movements
    • consists of muscle fibers and sarcomeres (contractile elements)
  20. smooth muscle
    • unstriated
    • responsible for involuntary bodily movements
    • cells are spindle-shaped
    • found in walls of digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, other internal organs
  21. cardiac muscle
    • striated
    • forms contractile walls of the heart
    • has fibers that interconnect via intercalated disks, which relay signals
    • help synchronize heart contraction
  22. nervous tissue
    • neurons and glia
    • a concentration of nervous tissue forms a brain
    • functions in the receit, processing, and transmission of information
  23. nerve cells (neurons - brain)
    • receive nerve impulses via dendrites
    • relay nerve impulses via axon
    • unidirectional
  24. glial cells
    • various types
    • support cells
    • nourish, insulate, replenish neurons
    • modulate neuron function

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