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Erikson is a Freudian Ego-psychologist
Means: he accepts freuds ideas as basically correct, including the more debatable ideas, tho erikson is also more society and culture orriented
The Epigenetic principle
says that we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stages
The Eight stages of unfolding our personalities how does frued fit in?
Erikson refines and expands Freuds psychosexual stages of development
Each of the eight stages....
- involes certain developmental tasks that are psychosocial in nature..
- Refferd to by two terms
what is Optimal Time in each of Erikson's eight stages
Maladaptation, malignancy, and virture
The interaction of generations
oral-sensory stage.. TRUST vs MISTRUST
- Maladaptive tendency- Sensory maladjustment (too much trust)
- Malignant Tendency- Withdrawal (too much mistrust)
- Equal amounts will give you Virtue- Hope and faith
Stage TWO (2-3): Autonomy vs Shame and doubt
Anal Muscular stage
- Maladaptive-too much autonomy leads to impulsiveness
- Malignancy- Too much shame and doubt leads to compulsiveness
- Virtue- willpower or determination
stage 3 (3-6): initiative vs. Guilt
- Genital- Locomotor stage
- Maladaptive- too much Initiative leads to ruthlessness
- Malignancy- too much guilt leads to inhibition
Stage FOUR (7-12) Idustry vs. Inferiority
- Maladaptive: too much industry leads ot narrow virtuosity
- Malignancy: too much inferiority leads to Inertia
- Virture- Competency
Stage Five (12-18) Ego Identity vs Role Confusion
- Adolescence- rites of passage
- maladaptive tendency- only ego identity leads to fanaticism
- malignant tendency- too much role confusion leads to repudiation
- virture- Fidelity
Stage six ( 18-30) Intimacy vs Isolation
- Maladaptive-too much intimacy leads to promiscuity
- Malignancy- too much isolation leads to exclusion
- virture- LOVE
stage seven (30-50)
Generativity vs. Stagnation
- Maladaptive- overextension doing too much for others when should have time for self
- Malignant- Only doing for themselfs leads to rejectivity
- virture- capacity for caring
stage eight ( 50-) Integrity vs Despair
- Maladaptive- ignoring getting older presumption
- Malignant- dwelling in getting older, Disdain
- Virture- Wisdom
- British Columbia grad
- studied Adolescent Aggression
- Behaviorism was too simplistic, so turned it into Reciprocal Determinism...
Albert Bendura says was the environmental causes behavior, true: but behavior causes enviroment as well
Bandura belived personalit composed of 3 things...
Enviorment, Behavior, and persons psychological processes
Social Learning Theory
Humans are conscious, thinking and feeling beings.
Persons variables need to be coonsidered as well as enviroment
Emphasis on the role of cognitive activity
Personality developes through..
observational learning of others' behavior says Bandura, then one will observe the actions and consequences of other's behaviors
then they will store a mental representation
Bobo doll studies
Order of Bobo clown thinking...
1. observe behavior 2. interpret and evaluate it 3.see consequences 4. think whether the behavior is appropriate for you 5.develope cognitive representations. 6.imitate behavior
What 4 steps are involved in the modeling process?
Attention, retentions, reproduction, motivation.
from traditional behaviorism
that we can imagine
seeing and recalling the model being reinforced
- 1. self observation
- 2 judgement
- 3 self response
meeting these goals lots of self praise and self reward (pride), leaving one with pleasent self concept (high self esteem)
- opposite of self reinforcement, 3 parts in punishement
- 1. Compensation- delusions of gradeur (narcissism)
- 2- inactivity- apathy, depression
- 3. Escape- drugs
Personality Variables vs. Situational Variables
- Emaotional Personality traits,
- Cognitive personality traits.
some sparks in personality may be just forced by situtations in eviroment and at times these can be more powerful then actually types of personality
4 Combinations of personalities
High Aggression, high need for social approval...ect.. 4 of them
John Dollard and Neal MIller
attempted to reconcile Freudian psycholotherapy and behaviorism. Tryied to explain freudian personality concepts in terms of behavirorims..
John Dollar and Neal Miller Drives..Primary vs Secondary
Secondary drives are more important to humans because they can indirectly lead to fulfillment of the primary drives
Reinforment and Drives..?
Reinforcement can not occur unless a behavior results in a drive reduction
John DOllard and Neal MIller..the journey
Belive humans value things by what they needed to do to get it..
Dollard and MIller Learning..
- drive, cue, responsce, reward..
- Learning requires:
- 1.Arousal of a drive
- 2. cues of stimuli that identify the responce to be made, where and when
- 3. The response when drive is aroused and cues are present
- 4. the responce is rewarded
D and M Frustration Aggression Model
frustration is signiicant condition for aggression. confirmed by basic relation.
Violence s an extreme form of aggression, SO when wer are blocked from achieving a goal we become frustrated and leads to aggression
UCS, CS, UCR, CR
Basic processes in operant Conditioning
Acquisition, shaping, Extrinction, Stimulus Control (generalization, Discrimination)
response followed by rewarding stimulus
Response followed by removal of an aversive stimulus
Decreasing a response
Punishment: responce followed by a presentation of an aversive stimulus
stimulus that is painful or uncomfortable (shock
learning to make a response in order to end an aversive stimulus
learning to make a response to avoid, postpone, or prevent discomfort just not doing it
Biological constraints on conditioning
- Instinctive Drift
- conditioned taste aversion
- preparedness and phobias
Cognitive influences on conditioning
response outcome relations