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which wavelengths are necessary for photosynthesis?
blue and red
Describe the circulation cycles?
- air that is heated by sunlight along the equator expands, causing it to rise (has great amout of moisture), cools as it expands to larger volume of upper atmosphere, water condenses (wet at equator), b/c cold water can't hold water.
- older air is pushed poleward by new heated air, when air is cooled enough, its density increase and it begins to sink.
- When it sinks it begins to absorb the solar raditiation reflected from Earth's surface and beings to warm, which gains water holding capacity, thus air holds on water and little rain occurs (desert)
regular, annual fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, or both results from Earth's 23.5 degrees tilt on its axis
What is biogeography?
how organisms are distributed geographically; abiotic and biotic factors and their interactions
geographical distribution based on abiotic factors
Describe non-native, exotic species and how they become invasive.
Exotic: not in area where they originate. Exotic species that disrupts the lcoal diversity, the ecological processes, changes the biodiversity and alters the interaction between species. shift in communities of higher diversity to a monoculture.
What influences NPP (net primary production) and what is it? How can it be measured by?
NPP is influenced by temperature and moisture. NPP is the total amount of cabon that is fixed per year minus amount of fixed carbon oxidized during cellular respiration. NPP represent the organic matter that is availible as food for other organism, can be measured by aboveground biomass (total mass of living plants, excluding roots)
When is photosynthesis, plant growth and NPP maximized on land?
when temperatures are warm and conditions are wet
describe the physical impact of mountains and oceans on the climate.
- depending on the direction of the wind, wind bring moisture ladden air form the ocean into the continent
- as air rises over the mountains, the air cools and releases large volumes of water, once cooled air has passed the crest and air is dry
- areas that receive this dry air is in rain shadow
what is dispersal?
movement of an individual from its place of birth to the location where it lives and breeds as an adult
Why are organisms found where they are?
role of history (wallace line), biotic factors (competition, reproductive requirements), climate and consequences of climate change (abiotic conditions)
what is the difference between climate and weather?
- Climate is the prevailing, long term weather conditions found in an area
- weather is the specific short-term atmospheric conditions of temperature, precipitation, sunlight and wind
What are the four components of climate? which are the most important?
temperature, precipiation, sunlight and wind, variation in temperature and moisture are the most imprant in determining plant distribution and abundance
What determines biomes?
defined by a dominant vegetation type, type of biome depends on climate (abiotic condition)
What is the difference between behavior in terms of genes and environemnt?
- genes play a strong role where behaviors are important to survival at a young age
- environment: tend to think about behaviors that occur later on, fitness benefits conditional aspect
what is evolutionary fitness? how does it relate to adaptive fitness?
measures how many viable, fertile offspring an indivudal leaves in the next and subsequent generations, relative to others in the population. Adaptive behavior: increases an individual's evolutionary fitness relative to other individuals in the population
What is imprinting and who first tested it?
- imprinting is the genetically programemed behavior n young, following "parent" as if they were his mother
Who first understood bee's dances?
who formulated 4 questions to ask when studying animal behavior?
How are foraging decisions made?
maximize energy gain and minimize costs
what is communication?
a process in which a signal (any information containing behavior) from one individual modifies the behavior of another individual
what is signal?
a trait that has evolved through natural selection b/c it has enabled its bearers to convey information to other organism
What is behavior?
an action in response to a stimulus
what is sexual selection
depends on the sucess of certain individuals over others of the same sex, in relation to propagation of species; sexual dimorphism
why do we see different behaviors in different animals?
costs and benefits are measureed in terms of their impact on fitness
What is optimal behavior?
maximize the among of usable energy they take in given the costs of finding and ingesting their food (rovers and sitters)
What is the fundamental asymmetry of sex?
females invest more in their offspring than males
What are two broad types of sexual selection?
male male competition and female choice
How do we know if a trait doesn't have adaptive value?
if it does, it would be found in both males and females
long distance movement of a population associated with a change of seasons
Why do animals migrate?
- to promote homogeneity of environmental conditions
- take advantage of seasonally abundant food supplies
- can achieve higher reproductive sucesses than individuals that do not
what are some of the costs and benefits of migration?
- high mortality, energetic demand, time commitment, risk of disorientation
- benefits: more available resources, less competition, longer photoperiod, less predation
What is the difference between migration and dispersal?
dispersal is one way movement of an organims, while migration is the round trip movement. Dispersal has biases among gender or age.
What are the difference migration strategies?
- complete migration: predicable round-trip movement
- partial: within one species, some populations are migratory while others are not
- irruptive: based on resource availability, distance, number of migrants are unpredictable
- altitudinal: movemtn up and down major land features such as mountains (b/c of weather, etc)
How do birds orient and pilot?
uses the sun, the stars and magnetic field, polarized light to orient themselves. B/c the position of the sun changes, birds have an internal clock. Pilot using familiar landmarks
How is communication a social process?
signal must be sent but also received and acted upon
What is frequency dependent selection
relative proportions will affect how natural selection acts on them; once it's common, benefit disappears for dishonesty
What is inter and intraspecific?
interspecific is betwen two species, where deception occurs
What is the difference between signs/cues and signals?
- signals benefits the sender but may or may not benefit the receiver
- cues/signs does not benefit the sender, but benefits the receiver
what are hamilton's postulates?
- if altruistic behavior beneftis are high for recipient
- altruist and recipient are close relatives
- the fitness costs to the altruist are low
what is inclusive fitness?
combination of direct and indirect fitness componets
How does altruistic behavior increase the fitness of individuals?
favoring kin and increasing the likelihood of recieving help in the frutre from non-kin
What is kin selection?
natural selection that acts through benefits to relatives and results in increased indirect fitness