abBio lab quiz

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  1. Sclera
    white, tough outer covering
  2. Vitreous Humor
    Viscous fluid that fills eye
  3. Cornea
    1st lens, transparent, no blood vessels
  4. Iris
    Ring of muscles, colored part of eye, contracts/relaxes in response to light
  5. Lens
    Keeps image in focus
  6. Retina
    converts light into electrical signals through optic nerve, responsible for central and color vision, responsible for peripheral vision
  7. Optic nerve
    contains neurons that connect to the brain
  8. Picture of Eye:
    Image Upload
  9. Eye Development (stages)
    • 1. Optic vesicle: close proximity to the non-neural ectoderm to induce lens placode.
    • 2. lens placode: invaginates to form the lens vesicle.
    • 3. optic vesicle: forms the optic cup and stimulates lens induction.
    • 4. cornea develops from ectoderm
    • 5. retina differtiation of several layers of cells
  10. Induction:
    cell to cell interaction that determines the fate of a group of cells.
  11. Eye development:
    Image Upload
  12. Zygote:
    • Sperm entry point gives the zygote symmetry
    • -Anterior/posterior
    • -Left/right axes
  13. Two poles (determines orientation of zygote)
    • Animal
    • Vegetal
    • Image Upload
  14. Cleavage:
    Rapid miotic divisions without cell growth (cell stays the same size)
  15. Mitosis promoting factor
    • Increase - mitosis
    • Decrease - DNA sythesis
  16. Blastomeres:
    Individual cells
  17. Morula:
    Latin for mulberry
  18. Development stages: 2 cell, 4 cell, 8 cell, Morula
    Image Upload
  19. Blastula:
    Blastomeres move to edges to form a hollow ball

    • Blastocoel:
    • Fluid inside the blastula
    • Image Upload
  20. Gastrula
    Invagination: animal pole moves toward vegetal pole

    Blastopore: opening

    • Archenteron: cavity
    • Image Upload
  21. Development stages of gastrula:
    • 3 layers:
    • Ectoderm: skin, nervous system
    • Mesoderm: muscles, circulatory system, cartilage, bone
    • Endoderm: internal organs, gut lining

    • Deuterostomes (echinoderms, chordates)
    • -Blastopore forms the anus

    • Protosomes (mollusks, arthropods, annelids)
    • -Blastopore forms the mouth
    • Image Upload
    Image Upload
  23. Yolk Distrubution Isolecithal
    • Yolk:
    • Evenly distributed
    • Sparce

    • Holoblastic cleavage
    • Complete division of egg into blastomeres
    • eg: seastars, mammals
    • Image Upload
  24. Yolk Distrubution Mesolecithal:
    • Yolk:
    • vegetal pole
    • moderate pole

    • Holoblastic cleavage
    • -complete division of egg into blastomeres
    • -cells divide slower at vegetal pole (yolk is thicker) ...faster in thinner part
    • eg: amphibians
    • Image Upload
  25. Yolk distrubution telolecithal
    yolk: throughout and dense

    • Meroblastic cleavage:
    • only a portion of the egg divides into blastomeres (in upper portion by nucleus)

    • Discoidal cleavage:
    • a type of meroblastic cleavage resulting in a disk of cells at the animal pole

    • eg: reptiles, birds
    • Image Upload
  26. Chicken gastrulation:
    blastodisc: area at animal pole without yolk

    ingression: cells of blastoderm migrate and turn in at the primative streak

    Cleavage is restricted to blastodisc (telolecithal)

    • Primative streak:
    • The same as the blastopore in the sea star
    • Image Upload
  27. Organogenesis Neurulation:
    • 1) nervous system develops from ectoderm
    • 2) epidermal cells move centrally
    • 3) neural plate folds
    • 4) folds elevate and come together
    • 5) closing forming neural tube
    • 6) neural crest cells migrate to form various structures
    • 7) the neural tube then develops into the central nervous system.
    • Image Upload
  28. Organogenesis cardiogenesis:
    • 1. Heart develops from mesoderm
    • 2. paired tubes fuse, blood flows from bottom to top (25-30hrs)
    • 3. S-bend (about 33hrs)
    • 4. Folds onto self into a loop, atria on the top and ventricles on the bottom (48hrs)
    • 5. Divsion into chambers (72hrs)
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  29. Egg windowing
    Image Upload
  30. Development requires:
    • growth
    • differentiation - specialization of cells (eg: muscles or nerves)
    • organogenesis - organis
    • morphogenesis - body begins to take shape
  31. Sea Star development:
    Image Upload
Card Set:
abBio lab quiz
2012-03-29 01:48:14

Bio lab quiz
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