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Begins preparation of food for digestion
Transports food from mouth to esophagus
Transports food from the pharynx to the stomach
Breaks down food & mixes it with digestive juices
Completes digestion & absorption of most nutrients
Absorbs excess water & prepares solid waste for elimination
Rectum & Anus
Control excretion of solid waste
Stores bile & releases it to the small intestine as needed
Secretes digestive juices & enzymes into small intestine as needed
Major organs of the digestive system:
- 1. Oral cavity (mouth)
- 2. Pharynx (throat)
- 3. Esophagus
- 4. Stomach
- 5. Small intestine
- 6. Large Intestine
- 7. Rectum
- 8. Anus
Accessory organs of digestive system:
- These organs aid digestion but are not part of the digestive system:
- .....1. Liver
- .....2. Gallbladder
- .....3. Pancreas
- Structures of the digestive system are diveded into:
- .....1. Upper GI tract:
- ..........a. Mouth
- ..........b. Esophagus
- ..........c. Stomach.....2. Lower GI tract:
- ..........a. Small Intestine
- ..........b. Large Intestine
- ..........c. Rectum
- ..........d. Anus
Another name for the small & large intestines
- Major structures include:
- .....1. Lips
- .....2. Tongue
- .....3. Hard palate
- .....4. Soft palate
- .....5. Salivary glands
- .....6. Teeth
- .....7. Periodontium
1. Form opening to oral cavity
- 2. During eating, lips:
- .....a. Hold food in the mouth
- .....b. Aid tongue & cheeks in guiding food between teeth for chewing
3. Also have important roles in breathing, speaking, & expression of emotions
4. Also known as labia; singular form: labium
. (These terms are also used to describe part of the femle genetalia.)
Upper & Lower Labial Frenum
Narrow bands of tissue that attatch the lips to the jaws
1. Forms the roof of the mouth
- 2. Consists of the:
- .....a. Hard Palate
- .....b. Soft Palate
- .....c. Uvula
1. Bony anterior portion of the palate
2. Covered with specialized mucous membrane that contain rugae.
Rugae (singular: ruga)
Irregular ridges or folds in the mucous membrane covering the hard palate.
1. Flexible posterior portion of the palate.
2. Closes off the nasal passage during swallowing to prevent food & liquid from moving upward into the nasal cavity.
1. Hangs from free edge of the soft palate.
2. During swallowing, moves upward with the soft palate
3. Plays important role in snoring & formation of some speech sounds.
1. Very strong, flexible, & muscular
2. Aids in speech
3. Moves food during chewing & swallowing
Parts of the Tongue
- 1. Dorsum:
- .....a. Upper surface of tongue
- .....b. Has tough, protective covering
- .....c. Some areas have papillae containing taste buds.
- 2. Sublingual:
- ....a. Under surface of tongue
- .....b. Like tissues under tongue, this surface is covered with delicate highly vascular tissue.
- .....c. This rich blood supply is what allows sublingual medications to be absorbed quickly.
- 3. Lingual frenum:
- .....a. Attaches tongue to floor of mouth
- .....b. Limits motion of tongue
- 1. Small bumps on dorsum (upper surface) of tongue
- 2. Contain taste buds, the sensory receptors for the sense of taste
Bone & soft tissue that surround and support teeth
- Specialized mucous membranes that:
- .....1. Surround the teeth
- .....2. Cover the bone of the dental arches
- .....3. Line the cheeks
Dental arches (upper & lower jaws)
- 1. Bony structures of oral cavity, consisting of:
- .....a. Maxillary arches
- .....b. Mandibular arches
2. Hold teeth
firmly in position to facilitate chewing & speaking
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
1. Joint formed at back of mouth where maxillary & mandibular arches come together.
2. The maxillary arch, which is part of the skull, does not move.
3. The mandibular arch, a separate bone, is the moveable component of this joint.
1. Natural teeth arranged in the upper & lower jaws
- 2. Human dentition includes 4 types of teeth:
- .....a. Cuspids - for biting & tearing:
- ...........(1.) Incisors
- ...........(2.) Canines
- .....b. Bicuspids - for chewing & grinding
- ..........(3.) Premolars
- .....c. (4.) Molars - for chewing & grinding
Primary dentition (deciduous dentition or baby teeth)
- 1. Consists of 20 teeth that are normally lost during childhood:
- .....a. 8 incisors
- .....b. 4 canines
- .....c. 8 molars
- .....d. NO premolars
2. Replaced by (32) permanent teeth
- 1. Consists of 32 teeth that are designed to last a lifetime:
- .....a. 8 incisors
- .....b. 4 canines
- .....c. 8 premolars
- .....d. 12 molars
Without teeth - after natural permanent teeth have been lost.
Any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth.
In dentistry, describes any contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper & lower teeth.
Structures & Tissues of the Teeth
- 1. Crown:
- .....a. Portion of a tooth that is visible in the mouth
- .....b. Covered with enamel, which is the hardest substance in the body
- 2. Root:
- .....a. Holds tooth securely in place within the dental arch.
- .....b. Roots are protected by the cementum which is strong, but not as hard as enamel.
3. Cervix: Neck of
the tooth where the crown & root meet.
- 4. Dentin:
- .....a. Makes up the bulk of the tooth structure
- .....b. Protected on outer surfaces by the enamel & cementum.
- 5. Pulp:
- .....a. Consists of rich supply of blood vessels & nerves
- .....b. Provides nutrients & innervation to tooth
- .....c. In crown, pulp located in pulp cavity
- .....d. In root, pulp continues through the root canal
Crown of tooth
Portion of tooth visible in mouth
Enamel of tooth
1. Covers & protects crown of tooth
2. Hardest substance in body
Root of tooth
1. Holds tooth in place in dental arch
2. Protected by cementum
Hard substance that protects the roots of teeth.
Cervix of tooth
Neck of tooth where crown & root meet.
- 1. Makes up bulk of tooth structure
- 2. Protected on outer surfaces by enamel & cementum
Pulp of tooth
1. Consists of a rich supply of blood vessels & nerves
2. Provides nutrients & innervation to teeth
3. In crown - located in pulp cavity
4. In root - located in root canal
Location of pulp in crown of tooth
Location of pulp in root of tooth.
- 1. Colorless liquid that:
- .....a. Moistens the mouth
- .....b. Begins the digestive process
- .....c. Lubricates food during chewing & swallowing
2. Excreted by 3 pairs of salivary glands
& carried into mouth via ducts.
1. Excrete saliva
which is carried into the mouth via ducts.
- 2. There are 3 pairs:
- .....a. Parotid glands
- ..........(1.) Glands located on face in front of & slightly below each ear
- ..........(2.) Ducts are on the inside of the cheek near the upper molars
.....b. Sublingual glands
: The glands &
on the floor of the mouth under the tongue
.....c. Submandibular glands
: The glands &
on the floor of the mouth near the mandible
Common passageway for both respiration & digestion
Lid-like structure that closes off entrance to the trachea to prevent food & liquids from moving from the pharynx during swallowing.
1. Muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach.
2. Backflow of food prevented by lower esophageal sphincter that controls flow between esophagus & stomach.
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
(cardiac sphincter or gastroesophageal sphincter)
Muscular ring that controls flow of food between the esophagus & stomach.
- 2. Normally:
- ......a. OPENS to allow flow of food into the stomach
- ......b. CLOSES to prevent stomach contents from regurgitating into the esophagus.
Means to flow backward.
- Sac-like organ composed of the:
- .....1. Fundus (upper, rounded part)
- .....2. Antrum (lower part)
1. Folds in the mucousal lining of the stomach.
- 2. Glands located within the rugae produce:
- .....a. Gastric juices that aid in digestion
- .....b. Mucus to create a protective coating on the lining of the stomach.
1. Narrow passageway connecting the stomach & small intestine.
2. Pyloric sphincter is ring-like muscle that controls flows from stomach to small intestine.
Ring-like muscle that controls flow from stomach into small intestine.