Anatomy Exam 3

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chloejory
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144126
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Anatomy Exam 3
Updated:
2012-03-27 02:45:08
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chloes anatomy
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11-14
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  1. Veins vs. Arteries
    • Veins: thin, to heart, valves, low pressure, dark viscous blood, seep
    • Arteries: thick, small, high pressure, bright thin blood, squirt
  2. Plasma
    Buffy Coat
    Erythrocytes
    • Plasma: Non living, transports hormones
    • Buffy Coat: platelets, white blood cells
    • Erythrocytes: Transport gasses, dense, anucleated
  3. Formed Elements
    • Red blood cells/erythrocytes (carriers)
    • White Blood cells/leukocytes (policemen)
    • Platelets (fixers)
  4. Plasma
    • -90% water
    • -nutrients/salts
    • -hormones
    • -gasses
    • -proteins (ambulin/clotting proteins, antibodies)
    • -waste
  5. Erythrocytes
    • -Outnumber leukocytes 1000:1
    • -bioconcave bags of hemoglobin
    • -few organelles
    • -eliminated after 100 days by spleen or liver
  6. Erythropropoenin
    Produced by kidneys when body is deprived of oxygen, commands bone marrow to produce more blood cells
  7. Leukocytes
    • -Disease defense
    • -Complete cells with nucleus and organelles
    • -Move in and out of cells
    • -respond to chemicals release by damaged tissue
  8. Granulocytes (Type 1 of Leukocyte)
    • Neutrophils: most common, phagocytes @ infection, bacteria and fungi
    • Eosinophils: allergies and parasites
    • Basophils: rarest, inflammatory
  9. Agranulocyte (Type 2 of Leukocyte)
    • Lymphocytes: Immune response
    • Monocytes: Change into microphages, fight chronic infection
  10. Megakaryocyte
    Larger form of platelet
  11. Hemostasis
    • -Stoppage of bleeding
    • -Platelet plug
    • -Vascular spasm
    • -clotting
  12. Hematopoesis
    Creation of rbcs in the marrow
  13. Right heart
    • 1. Superior and Inferior Venacava
    • 2. Right atrium
    • 3.Tricuspid Valve
    • 4. Right ventricle
    • 5. Pulmonary artery
  14. Left Heart
    • 1. pulmonary vein
    • 2. left atrium
    • 3. bicuspid valve
    • 4.left ventricle
    • 5. aorta
  15. Nodes of the heart
    • SA node: RA, brain to heart (pacemaker)
    • AV node: between RA and RV, controls ventricular contraction
    • Bundle branches: send out av signal
    • Perkinge fibers: send out bundle branch signal
  16. Seminlunar valves
    Between heart and arteries (ie. semilunar aortic valve)
  17. Nourishment
    Heart nourishes itself without blood (has coronary veins)
  18. Right vs. Left Ventricle
    smaller and weaker vs. larger and stronger
  19. Cardiovascular function
    Deliver O2 and nutrients and remove CO2 and waste products
  20. Pericardium
    • Double membrane around heart
    • Visceral Pericardium: next to heart
    • Parietal pericarsium: outside layer
    • Serous fluid: fills space between
  21. Walls of heart
    • Epicardium: connective tissue
    • Myocardium: cardiac muscle
    • Endocardium: inner, endothelium
  22. Septum
    Divides heart
  23. RICE
    • Injury:
    • Rest
    • Ice
    • Compression
    • Elevate
  24. Arterioles and Venules
    Connected to each other by capillaries
  25. Varicose
    Collapsed veins creating thrombosi (risk for heart attack or stroke)
  26. Tunica
    Covering of arteries and veins, 3 layers but different thicknesses
  27. Skeletal muscle
    Pushes blood in veins and lymphatic vessels towards heart
  28. Capillaries
    • -One layer
    • -deliver blood to tissue
    • -connect arteriols and venules by vascular shunt
  29. Circle of Willis
    Brains roundabout to ensure constant blood supply
  30. Hepatic Portal system
    • Veins must drop nutrients at liver before going to heart
    • Spleen liver and digestive organs drain thru hepatic portal vein
  31. Blood pressure
    Systolic/diatolic, 120/60, measured in large arteries
  32. Lymphatic vessels
    • Non-muscular
    • Low pressure
    • Body's sponge
    • Transport escaped fluids to heart
  33. Lymphoid tissue
    House phagocytes and lymphocytes, bodies defense system
  34. Lymphs
    • Process fluid before it goes to heart
    • Most of the process occurs on the left side thru left thoracic duct
  35. Defense Cells
    • Macrophages: engulf and destroy foreign substances
    • Lymphocytes: Specific, provide immune response to antigens
  36. Antigens
    Foreign irritants
  37. Self-antigen
    Non-reactive helpful bacteria in the body
  38. Endocrine System
    • Coordinates activity of the bodies cells
    • Reproduction, growth, nutrient balance, metabolism
  39. Hormones
    • Steroid: lipid soluble, binds to a specific protein in the nucleus (sex hormones)
    • Amino acid based: epinephrine, norepinephrine
    • Non steroid: water soluble, connects to receptors in cell membrane to initiate changes but does not enter
  40. Hormonal stimuli
    • Most common
    • Stimulate other endocrine organs to release hormones into blood
    • Eg. growth
  41. Humoral Stimuli
    • changes blood levels of ions and nutrients
    • eg. diuretics
  42. Neural Stimuli
    • Nerve impulses stimulate hormone release
    • controlled by sympathetic nervous system
    • eg. fight or flight/epinephrine and norepinephrine
  43. Ptuitary Gland
    • HYPOTHALYMUS
    • Anterior: growth hormone, milk production, LH (ovulation and testosterone), FSH (gonad development)
    • Posterior: Oxytocin (uterine contraction) ADH (anti-diuretic)
  44. Hypothalymus
    Controls release and inhibition of hormones, houses ptuitary gland
  45. Thyroid gland
    • BASE OF THROAT
    • Major metabolic hormone, controls calcium levels
  46. Parathyroid
    • BASE OF THROAT
    • stimulates osteoclasts to remove calcium
  47. Adrenal Glands
    • ATOP KIDNEYS
    • regulates mineral content
    • produces norepinephrine
    • produces estrogen
  48. Pancreatic Islets
    • PANCREAS
    • maintain sugar homeostasis, insulin
  49. Pineal glands
    • HANG IN BRAIN
    • melatonin, sleep
  50. Thymus Gland
    • STERNUM
    • immune system, bigger in kids
  51. Gonads
    • GENITALS
    • male and female sex hormones

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