Stem Cells 1 (MJC)

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frozespot171
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144140
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Stem Cells 1 (MJC)
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2012-03-29 23:10:56
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MJC Stem Cells
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Stem Cells
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  1. Embryonic stem cells can differentiate into specialised tissues.
    Which statement below in NOT true?

    1) Embryonic stem cells are an example of pluripotent cell which have the potential to become almost any cell in the body.
    2) As the stem cells differentiate, it loses genetic information.
    3) Embryonic stem cells can differentiate into any cell type other than those of the extraembryonic membranes.
    4) Chemical molecules or growth factors can initiate the embryonic stem cells to differentiate.
    2) As the stem cells differentiate, it loses genetic information.
  2. Which of the following features is not a characteristic of stem cells?
    1) Unspecialised
    2) Able to proliferate
    3) Multipotent
    4) Ability of differentiate into specialised cells under appropriate conditions
    3) Multipotent
  3. "The normal process by which a less specialized cell develops or matures to become more distinct in form and function" is a definition of

    1) induction
    2) developmental potential
    3) differentiation
    4) morphogenesis
    3) differentiation
  4. Which type of cells would an embryonic stem cell not differentiate into?

    1) yolk sac cells
    2) erythrocytes
    3) neurons
    4) cardiac muscle cells
    1) yolk sac cells
  5. A cell that remains flexible in its development possibilites is said to be
    1) differentiated
    2) genomically equivalent
    3) epigenetic
    4) totipotent
    4) totipotent
  6. Different stem cells have different development potential.
    Which of the cells below have the smallest development potential?

    1) Adult stem cells
    2) Embryonic stem cells
    3) Fetal stem cells
    4) Embryonic carcinoma cells
    1) Adult stem cells
  7. The cloning of plants using somatic cells suggest that

    1) differentiated cells retain all the genes of the zygote
    2) differentiation results in the lost of genes
    3) inducing a stem cell to differentiate is simple and can be easily done
    4) all cells are unspecialised
    1) differentiated cells retain all the genes of the zygote
  8. Which of the stem cells below is an example of a pluripotent stem cell?

    1) Blastocyst stem cells
    2) Early embryonic stem cells
    3) Hematopoietic stem cell
    4) Bone marrow stromal cells
    1) Blastocyst stem cells
  9. The normal primary function of adult stem cells is so as to

    1) give rise to all cells in the body
    2) maintain genetic stability and reduces chances of mutation
    3) maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found
    4) give rise to cells in the three germ layers
    3) maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found
  10. Embryonic stem cells are used to differentiate into specialised cells for various uses.
    How does this specialisation brought about?

    1) Placing them next to the desired cells
    2) When they clump together to form embryoid bodies.
    3) By introducing a virus the contains the genome of the desired cell to the stem cells
    4) Through cytoplasmic factors
    2) When they clump together to form embryoid bodies.
  11. Which part of the blastocyst is the embryonic stem cells derived from?

    1) Trophoblast
    2) Blastocoel
    3) Inner cell mass
    4) The stem cells do not come from the blastocyst.
    3) Inner cell mass
  12. The blastocyst stem cells usually gives rise to

    1) the nervous system
    2) lining of the digestive tract and its associated organs
    3) connective tissues
    4) All of the above
    4) All of the above
  13. Which of the following questions explain why in its natural environment, stem cells of a specific cell type cannot be induced to produce cells of other types?

    1) Different stem cells lack the genes required for their differentiation into a particular cell line.
    2) Genes that are not required for a certain cell line has been removed by restriction enzymes.
    3) Degradation of genes not required by a particular cell line has occurred.
    4) Genes are not required for a particular cell line are methylated.
    4) Genes are not required for a particular cell line are methylated.
  14. There are various factors that keep gene therapy from being an effective treatment. Which of the following is not a factor that limits its effectiveness?

    1) There is a risk of stimulating immune / allergic response to the viral protein
    2) Viral vector may regain or develop virulence, and cause disease in the patient body
    3) Some virus may not be able to infect non-dividing
    cells and hence gene therapy may not suitable for
    diseases involving some cell types.
    4) None of the above
    4) None of the above
  15. Germ-line gene therapy involves the extracting cells from the early embryo, effectively causing the death of the embryo which raises various ethical and social objections.

    Which of the following is not a valid objection?

    1) There is a risk of inducing mutations, which can be passed down to the offspring, as germ-line therapy is not perfect.
    2) There are objections to killing embryos used for research in gene therapy as many consider the killing of embryos equate to the ending of a human life.
    3) It may be abused by, for example, totalitarian
    governments to produce ‘superior’ humans.
    4) People view germ-line therapy to be ineffective as there are other methods to eradicate certain diseases.
    4) People view germ-line therapy to be ineffective as there are other methods to eradicate certain diseases.

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