BSCI 124 Exam 2

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  1. Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
    • Small, unicellular, haploid only
    • Asexual: no mitosis --> binary fission
    • Most heterotrophic (obtain food from others)
  2. Fungi
    • Eukaryotic, non-photosynthetic, have cell walls, haploid and diploid
    • Sexual spores (meiosis) and asexual spores (mitosis)
    • Thread-like strands called hyphae (single strand = yeast)
  3. Mycotoxins
    harmful toxic chemicals produced by fungi and accumulate in infected food
  4. Algae basics
    • eukaryotes, mostly photosynthetic
    • micro or macro
    • sexual or asexual
  5. Algae: Diatoms
    live in cool oceans, mostly unicellular
  6. Algae: Kelps/ Brown Algae
    rocky caosts in cold water, multicellular
  7. Algae: Dinoflagellates
    • mainly unicellular, green/colorless, asexual
    • red tide
  8. Algae: Red Algae
    • oldest organisms on earth
    • thin filmds to complex filaments
    • accessory pigments make it red
    • can photosynthesize in deep water
  9. Algae: Green Algae
    • Largest, most diverse
    • fresh water and lang
    • ancestor or land plants: cellulose, chlorophyll, alternation of generations, cell plate
  10. Bryophytes
    • non vascular
    • have cuticle and stomata
    • moist environment
    • alternation of generations
    • Gametophyte generation is dominant with rhizoids and produces eggs and sperm
    • Spotophyte occurs when egg is fertilized (diploid) sporocytes undergo meiosis to produce haloid spores
  11. Ferns
    • vascular tissues
    • sporophyte genereation is larger
    • haploid gametophyte is small/short lived
    • Fronds: sporophyte leaves
    • Fiddleheads: young fronds
    • Rhizomes: underground horizontal stem
    • Roots: arise from rhizome
  12. Gymnosperms
    • Naked seed; trees
    • Spotophyte is dominant
    • Evolved from ferms
    • Annual rings: xylem formed by vascular cambium during one growth season
    • bark-->phloem-->cambium-->xylem-->wood
  13. Angiosperms basics
    • covered seed; fruits and flowers
    • flower has male and female sex organs
  14. Angiosperms structure
    • Stamens: male sex organ that produces pollen (male gametophyte)
    • Carpel: female sex organ
    • Ovary: part of carpel, female gemotophyte
    • Stigma: receptive part of carpel to catch pollen
    • Sepals: leafs (green)
    • Petals: inner part of leaf (colorful)
  15. Angiosperm: reproduction
    • hetersoporous: form 2 male and female spores
    • male: pollen grains contain 2 sperm
    • female: contain 1 egg and 2 polar nuclei
    • double fertilization: pollen has 2 sperms: 1 fertilizes egg and 1 unites with 2 nuclei to make triploid endosperm
  16. Monocots v Dicots
    • monocots: always odd numbers, scattered, and herbacious
    • dicots: always even numbers, circle and can be woody or herbacious
  17. Pollination
    transfer of pollen from male anther to female stigma
  18. Bees
    • sight/smell
    • yellow and blue
  19. Butterflies
    • sight/smell
    • red and orange
    • proboscis (tube to get nectar)
  20. moths
    • white or pale
    • sweet odor
  21. Flies and Beetles
    • dung smell
    • dull flowers
  22. Birds
    • no smell
    • yellow and red
  23. bats
  24. mice
    yeast smell
  25. Simple Fruit
    develop from a single ovary of a single carpel/flower, fleshy or dry
  26. Simple Fruit: Berry
    entire fruit is soft
  27. Simple Fruit: Hersperidium
    has a peel outside, inner is fleshy
  28. Simple Fruit: Drupe
    outer is fleshy, inside is hard
  29. Simple Fruit: Pepo
    develop from enlarged base of perianth fused with ovary walls with stems
  30. Simple Fruit: Pome
  31. Simple Fruit: Dry
    • Capsule and Legumes: capsule open at maturity; splits at severl stems
    • Caryopsis and Nuts: dont open at maturity
  32. Aggregate fruit
    develops from one flower with many carpels at the same time
  33. Multiple Fruit
    develops from ovaries of flowers on same stalk
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BSCI 124 Exam 2
2012-03-27 13:30:55
BSCI 124

BSCI 124 Exam 2
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