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  1. What are 3 typical effects of normal flora?
    • vitamin production
    • digestion
    • outcompete pathogens
  2. What may act as an opportunist if found in the wrong area or an overgrowth is found?
    normal flora
  3. What are 2 places normal flora are found, generally?
    • body partys directly exposed to environment
    • body parts directly open to the environment
  4. What are not found in deep internal body parts?
    normal flora
  5. What 3 body parts are normal flora found directly exposed to the environment?
    • skin
    • conjuctiva of eye (membrane on white of the eye and eyelid)
    • inside nose and throat
  6. What 3 openenings are normal flora found in?
    • lg intestine
    • urethra
    • vagina
  7. Why is normal flora not found in the uterus or ovaries of a female?
    normal flora would be flushed out via menstrual cycle, acids present, and cilia with mucous
  8. Why is normal flora not found in the bladder or kidneys?
    it is constantly flushed out via urine
  9. Why is normal flora not found in the lungs?
    microorganisms are trapped by mucous and cilia to be removed
  10. What is the difference between health-care associated illnessed and nosocomial infections?
    • nosocomial infections are hospital aquired only
    • health-care associated illnesses can be in any health care setting
  11. What 3 groups are at high risk for quiring a HCI?
    • young
    • old
    • immunosupressed
  12. What 5 factors are needed for a patient to gain a HCI?
    • low immune response patient
    • pathogens found in health care
    • lack of aeseptic technique
    • other low immune patients surrounding
    • common organisms found in health care
  13. What are 2 organisms commonly found that lead to HCI?
    • staph
    • e. coli
  14. What are 2 ways to control HCI from happening?
    • proper aeseptic technique
    • avoid invasive procedures
  15. How do pathogens enter the body?
    portals of entry
  16. What is the portal of entry for ringworm?
    intact skin
  17. What is the portal of entry for many pathogens?
    mucous mebranes
  18. What is the portal of entry for TORCH agents?
    crossing the placenta
  19. What is it known as when pathogens make a portal of entry through a break in the skin or mucous membrane?
    parenteral introduction
  20. What are the 6 steps a pathogen takes to become a disease?
    • 1. portal of entry
    • 2. adherence/ colonization
    • 3. inavasion (optional)
    • 4. resisting immunity
    • 5. causing damage (signs/symptoms)
    • 6. portal of exit
  21. What step in the pathway of pathogens to become disease is optional for some disease?
  22. What are chemicals or structures that help an organism cause disease?
    virulence factors
  23. What is a virulence factor for an enveloped virus?
    spikes on envelope that adhere
  24. What is a virulence factor for tapeworms?
    hooks and suckers that adhere to intestines
  25. What is a virulence factor of some bacterium?
    capsule that adheres
  26. What are 2 enzymes that pathogens use as virulence factors?
    • Hyaluronidase
    • Collagenase
  27. What virulence factor digests collagen?
  28. What virulence factor digests hyaluronic acid?
  29. Where is hyaluronic acid found in the body?
    • it is the matrix material that hold connective tissue together
    • connective tissue is the msot abundant tissue in the body
  30. What type of organisms are the most harmful?
  31. What are 3 exmaples of pathogens resisting host defenses?
    • bacteria capsule resists phagocytosis
    • bacteria acid fast walls resist phagocytosis
    • viruses hide in host cells
  32. What are 3 types of damage a pathogen could cause to make disease?
    • localized
    • toxins
    • host mediated (due to immunity)
  33. What are 2 examples of localized damage?
    • tapeworms in the intestines
    • protease digests proteins in the gums
  34. What enzyme leads to gingivities, or periodontal disease?
  35. What 3 things can give bacterium the ability to make toxins?
    • plasmids (F+)
    • mutations
    • G-
  36. What kind of damage do toxins cause?
  37. What are 2 types of toxins?
    • nedotoxins
    • exotoxins
  38. What are 3 types of exotoxins?
    • neurotoxins
    • enterotoxins
    • leukocidins
  39. What much exotoxins do to harm cells?
    attach to specific receptors on the surface of the cells
  40. What cells do neurotoxins attach to?
  41. What cells do enterotoxins attach to?
  42. What cells do leukocidins attach to?
    white blood cells
  43. What resists virulence factors?
    host immunity
  44. What damage is due to the host's immun e response?
    host mediated/ hypersensitivity
  45. What is the step of the pathway of a pathogen causing disease that explains when a pathogen travels form one host to the next?
    portal of exit
  46. What is the portal of exit usually?
    the same body system as the portal of entry
Card Set
disease principles
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