HCCC A&P Test II
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Name the primary tissues
Describe the structural characteristics of epithelium tissue?
Epithelial tissue is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity.
It occurs in the body as (1) covering and linging epithelium and (2) glandular epithelium.
What is the function of the epithelium tissue?
- Sensory reception
Name the epithelia classification based on number of cell layers.
Simple: one layer
Stratified: more than one layer; the first layer is called the basal surface and the upper most called the Apical surface
Name the epithelia classification based on cell shape.
Squamous cell: are flattened and scalelike
Cuboidal cell: are boxlike, approximately as tall as they are wide.
Columnar cell: are tall and column shape.
What are Pseudostratified Coumnar Epithelium?
Tissues which give a false impression that several cell layers are present, because the cell nuclei lie at different levels above the basement membrane.
What are Glandular Epithelia?
A gland consists of one or more cells that make and secrete (export) a particular product.
What is an Endocrine Gland?
Endocrine Gland secrete internally, their products are called hormones.
What are Exocrine Glands?
These glands secrete their products onto body surface or into body cavities. They produce mucous, sweat, oil, salivery glands, bile, and many more.
Name the four main classes of connective tissue.
- Connective tissue proper (adipose & fibrous tissue of the ligaments)
- Cartilage tissue
- Bone tissue
What are the functions of connective tissue?
- Binding and support
- transportation of substances within the body
Connective Tissue is...
Supports and binds other tissues. Highly vasular (with blood), and well nurished. The cells do not touch and are separted by the matrix.
The matrix is composed of ...
Ground substance made of fluid, proteoglycans, and fibers that consist of collagen, elastic, and reticular.
Types of Connective Tissues are:
- Loose: support organs
- Adipose (fat)
- Dense: tendons and ligaments
- Vascular (blood)
Name the five layers of the Epidermis, from bottom to top.
- 1. Stratum basale
- 2. Stratum spinosum
- 3. Stratum granulosum
- 4. Stratum lucidum
- 5. Stratum corneum
Describe the Stratum basale composition.
The Stratum basale composition is in contact with the dermis. The cells are consitently divided mitotically and moving outward (upperward).
The bottom layer.
Describe the Stratum spinosum composition.
The prickly layer, is mostly kertincytes.
The second acending layer.
Describe the Stratum granulosum.
The cell is dying and mostly filled with granules of keratohyaline and lamellated.
The third acenting layer.
Describe the Stratum Lucidum.
The cell contains no nuclei, organelles, or cell membranes.
The fourth acending layer.
Describe the Stratum Corneum
These are complete dead cells which provide a 20 to 30 cell layer of protection and is nearly waterproof.
The top, fifth, acending layer.
What is the Dermis?
Dermis is the deeper and thicker than the epidermis. It is highly vascular and glanduler.
What is a Sudoriferous Gland?
Your sweat gland
What are Sebaceous Glands?
Your oil glands or sebum
How is your hair structural divided?
Into the root and shaft (the dead part)
How is your nail divided?
- The nail body
- The nail bed (underneath the body)
- The free edge (the nail)
- and nail groove (undernether the nail)
What are the functions of the bone (a connective tissue)?
- to support
- to protect
- to allow body movement
- Hematopoiesis (making red blood cells)
- Mineral Storage (fat and calcium)
Name the two types of bone textures.
- Compact Bone is the external layer and
- Spongy Bone is the interal layer
Structure of a typical long bone:
Diaphysis: the shaft, forming the long axis of the bone. It forms a collar of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity or marrow cavity. This cavity is cover with a layer called the endosteum. The endosteum produces osteoblast.
Epiphyses: the bone ends.
Name the membrances of the typical long bone.
Periosteum: the outter member of the bone with two layers.
The outer layer contains the blood vessels and lymphatic nerves
The inter layer conatins the OSTEOGENIC layer, which secretes osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Chondrocytes-mineral depositon-calcification-chondrocytes die from pericondrium differntialtion of osteoblast-osteoid-primarny ossification center
Volkmann's Canal are...
also called perforating canals, which lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect the blood and nerves supply of the periosteum to those in the central canals and the medullary cavity.
Haversian canal are...
also known as the central canal, they run longitudinally through the bone.
How does the body balance the need for calcium?
The parathyroid releases parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to low calcium, which increases osteoclast activity in the bones.
Once a balance is reached, then calcitonin, is released by the thyroid gland inhibits PTH secretion.
Classification of Bones
basis of their shape and their proportion of compact or spongy bone
Name the functional classification of joints.
- Synarthroses: immovable
- Phyarthroses: slight movable
- Diarthroses: freely movable
Fibrous Joints are...
mostly synarthroses and are either:
No joint cavity is present
"seams" occur only between bones of the skull.
connected exclusively by ligaments.
a peg-in-socket fibrous joint. The only example is the articulation of a tooth with its bony alveolar socket.
Cartilaginous Joints are...
the articulating bones united by cartilage. Like fibrous joints, they lack a joint cavity are are not highly movable.
Synchondroses Cartilaginous Joint are...
a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage uniting the bones. The most common example are the epiphyseal plates in the long bones of children.
Symphyses Cartilaginous Joint are...
the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with articular (hyaline) cartilage, which in turn is fused to an intervening pad, or plate, of fibrocartilage, which is the main connecting material.
i.e. the public bones and between the vertabra
Synovial Joints are..
(joint eggs) those in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity and is diarthroses.
Synovial joint distinguishing features are
Articular cartilage: double layered covering the opposing bones surfaces
essentially bags of lubricant, they act as "ball berings" to reduce friction between adjeacent structures during joint activity. Usually found in synovial joints.
What are the three types of Synovial joint movements?
movements from side to side or back and forth. This movement is found in the intercarpal/tarsal joints and also in sternocostal.
Angular Movement: Flexion
- is a bending movement, usually along the sagittal plane.
- It decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer together.
i.e. bending your head to your chest.
Angular Movement: Extension
is the reverse of flexion. It increases the angle of the joints and brings the articulating bones further apart.
Angular Movement: Abduction
(moving away) is movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body, along the frontal plane.
Angular Movement: Adduction
(moving toward) is the opposite of abduction, so it is the movement of a limb towards the body midline.
Angular Movement: Circumduction
is moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space.
Angular Movement: Rotation
is turning of a bone around its own long axis.
Angular Movement: Supination/Pronation
"turning backwards"/"turning forward"
Angular Movement: Dorisflexion & Plantar Flexion of the Foot.
Lifting the foot to the shin is dorsiflexion
pointing the toes down is plantar flexion
Angular Movement: Elevation & Depression
means lifing a body part superiorly.
i.e. the shoulder shrug/chewing.
Angular Movement: Opposition
The saddle joint between metacarpal 1 and the trapeium allows this movement.
i.e. when you touch your fingers with your thumb.
Angular Movement: Inversion & Eversion
a special movement of the foot. To inverse, the sole of the foot turns medially; eversion is the opposite.
Angular Movement: Protaction & Retraction
Nonangular anterior and posterior movement in a transverse plane. The mandible is protracted when you jut out your jaw and retracted when you bring it back.
Synovial Joint: Plane Joints
the articular surfaces are essentially flat, and they allow one short nonaxial gliding movements.
Synovial Joint: Hinge Joints
the cylindrical end of one bone conforms to a trough-shaped surface on another.
i.e. the elbow or inter-phalangeal
Syovial Joint: Pivot Joints
the rounded end of one bone conforms to a "sleeve" or ring composed of bone (and possibly ligaments) of another.
i.e. the proximal radioulnar joint, where the head of the radius rotates within a ringlike ligament secured to the ulna.
Synovial Joint: Condyloid Joints
the oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another. This permits all angular motions.
i.e. the radiocarpal (wrist) & metacarpophalangeal (knuckle)
Syovial Joint: Saddle Joints
resemble condyloid joints, but they allow greater freedom of movement. Each articular surface has both concave and convex areas (a saddle).
i.e. the thumb (carpometacarpal joints of the pollex).
Synovial Joint: Ball and Socket Joints
the spherical or hemispherical head of one boen articulates with the cuplike socket of another. Universal movement.
i.e. the shoulder and hip joints are the only examples.
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