Survey_Arch_II

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Survey_Arch_II
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2012-03-27 20:16:18
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Architecture history
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Survey of Architectural history II - test 2
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    • Crystal Palace, International Exposition, London
    • 1851, Joseph Paxton

    The Great Exhibition was designed to showcase technology and new products from Britain and its colonies, but to give it a truly international flavor, half the exhibits were from other nations.
  1. Severn River Bridge, 1779, Pritchard and Darby. England, coalbrookdale.

    • It was the first arch bridge in the world to be made out of cast iron, a material which was previously far too expensive to use for large structures.
    • it's looks ment to mimic the way a tradiotional masonry bridge would have been built, but done with iron. key elements are the keystone, voussoirs.
    • St. Pancras Station and Hotel, 1863-65 George Gilbert Scott. London.
    • St Pancras is often termed the ''cathedral of the railways', and includes two of the most celebrated structures built in Britain in the Victorian era. The main train shed, completed in 1868 by the engineer William Henry Barlow was the largest single-span structure built up to that time.

    • The frontage of the station is formed by St Pancras Chambers, formerly the Midland Grand Hotel (1868-1877), an impressive example of Victorian Gothic architecture.

    • Dame-du-Travail, 1898-1902, Jules
    • Astruc. Paris, France.
    • The church was constructed using the tectonic language of industrial architecture.
    • During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Paris regarded itself as the world capital for technology and innovation. Industrialization was moving ahead at full speed, and the city experienced a massive influx of workers to fill the new factories. The 14th arrondissement, near the city’s southern periphery, felt the impact of this new immigration quite acutely, and soon planning began for a new church to accommodate these new workers and their families.
    • The Eiffel Tower, Paris, France 1889. By Gustav Eiffel
    • The construction of the Eiffel Tower was one of the first examples of large scale industrialized construction in which largely pre-fabricated pieces were shipped to site and subsequently assemble
  2. Auditorium Building, 1886-90 Dankmar Adler & Louis Sullivan, Chicago, IL.

    Look for roosavelt university at the front (modern picture)
  3. Wainwright Building, Adler & Sullivan, 1890. St Louis, MS

    • cf. composition of a classical column.
    • abstraction of th column idea and it's componments:
    • The top part which is the cornice and the ornamental freize
    • The capital then base.
  4. Carson Pirie Scott building. Sullivan. 1903

    The building is remarkable for its steel-framed structure, which allowed a dramatic increase in window area created by bay-wide windows, which in turn allowed for the greatest amount of daylight into the building interiors. This provided larger displays of merchandise to outside pedestrian traffic creating the idea of the sidewalk showcase.
    • The Home Insurence Building, Lebaron and Jenney. 1884.
    • Chicago
    • Due to the Chicago building's unique architecture and unique weight-bearing frame, it is considered to be one of the first skyscrapers in the world. The Home Insurance Building is an example of the Chicago School in architecture. with the elements of the coloumn, the chicago window and the use of steel-frame buildings with masonry cladding. demolishd in 1931
    • Reliance Building, 1890-1895. John Root and Charles Atwood. Chicago, IL
    • The plan for the Reliance Building was consistent with the growing concept of the Chicago school of architecture, which emphasized the importance of designing toaddress the function of a building.Oriel Window's or the chicago window.
    • Robie House, 1909 Frank Loyd Wright. Chicago.
    • horizontal lines, flat or hipped roofs with broad overhanging eaves, windows grouped in horizontal bands, integration with the landscape, solid construction, craftsmanship, and discipline in the use of ornament. Horizontal lines were thought to evoke and relate to the native prairie landscape.
    • Frank Lloyd Wright, promoted an idea of "organic architecture", the primary tenet of which was that a structure should look as if it naturally grew from the site.
    • Fallingwater, Frank Loyed Wright, Bear run, PA 1936
    • It was designed according to Wright's desire to place the occupants close to the natural surroundings, with a stream and waterfall running under part of the building.
    • Wright's passion for Japanese architecture was strongly reflected in the design of Fallingwater, particularly in the importance of interpenetrating exterior and interior spaces and the strong emphasis placed on harmony between man and nature.
  5. Jacobs House. Madison, WI 1936. Frank Loyd Wright.

    • 1,500 square feet dwelling. minimal cost.
    • Many features of modern American homes date back to Wright, including open plans, slab-on-grade foundations, and simplified construction techniques that allowed more mechanization and efficiency in building.
    • These spaces in turn flowed into the main living areas, which also were characteristically outfitted with built-in seating and tables. As in the Prairie Houses, Usonian living areas focused on the fireplace.
  6. Johnson Wax Company, administration building and research tower. 1936 WI. Frank Loyd Wright

    Wright extended his idea of the company as an organic social entity with the construction of the Johnson Wax building in 1939. As with the Larkin building, workers were isolated from the unsympathetic industrial surroundings within a great space supported by slender mushroom columns and lit from above. The great work room, with its rich spaces, warm, radiant materials and forms were intended to compensate for the lack of view and contact with the outside world. The success of the building was proved by the extra time that employees chose to spend in the building.
  7. The Gugenheim Museum. New York, NY. 1957-1959 Frank Loyd Wright.

    The viewing gallery forms a helical spiral from the main level up to the top of the building. Paintings are displayed along the walls of the spiral and also in exhibition space found at annex levels along the way.
    • "Red House," Philip Webb, 1859. England.
    • major building of the history of the Arts and Crafts style and of 19th century British architecture. It was designed during 1859 by its owner, William Morris, and the architect Philip Webb, with wall paintings and stained glass byEdward Burne-Jones. He also desired to have a "Palace of Art" in which he and his friends could enjoy producing works of art. ith its well-proportioned solid forms, wide porches, steep roof, pointed window arches, brick fireplaces and wooden fittings. Webb rejected the grand classical style, based the design on British vernacular architecture and attempted to express the texture of ordinary materials, such as stone and tiles, with an asymmetrical and quaint building composition.
    • Tassel House. Brussle Belgium 1892-93. Victor Horta
    • Horta made a break with the past here by using stone and
    • he modern material, metal, in domestic architecture. The modernity of Horta's town house is also signaled by the extensive use of glass, where the window sizes may indicate the function of the interior.
    • The facade includes classical elements like moldings and columns but here some of the columns are iron, not stone, and the entablature is metal, complete with exposed rivets. In addition, this town house has features an open floor plan; a use of natural light; a unity of architecture, interior decoration, and furniture.

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