Music E5

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  1. A basic quality of romanticism in art was ______________________________________.
    Emotional subjectivity
  2. Which painting in this chapter has three steeples and three people?
    The evening star
  3. List three primary sources of inspiration for Romantic artists and writers.
    Nature, medieval folk ballads, and tales of fantasy and adventure
  4. List at least 10 Romantic composers.
    Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Clara Wieck Schumann, Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, Felix Mendelssohn, Hector Berlioz, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Bedřich Smetana, Antonin Dvořák, Johannes Brahms, Giuseppe Verdi, Giacomo Puccini, and Richard Wagner
  5. Three characteristics of some Classical compositions that carried over into the Romantic were:
    musical forms, emotional intensity, and expressive, songlike melody
  6. Why are generalizations about the style of Romantic composers misleading?
    romantic music is so diverse
  7. How would a composer express his nationality in his music?
    using the folk songs, dances, legends, and history of their homelands.
  8. Using colorful material from foreign lands is called __________________.
    Musical exoticism
  9. Define program music:
    instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene
  10. What is Smetana's piece, The Moldau, about?
    the main river of Bohemia
  11. Which sections of the orchestra grew in size and importance in during the nineteenth century?
    brass, woodwind, and percussion
  12. What improvements were made to the piano around 1830.
    A cast-iron frame was introduced to hold the strings under greater tension, and the hammers were covered with felt. Thus the piano's tone became more“singing.” Its range was also extended.
  13. How did Romatic composers create a sense of yearning, tension, and mystery?
    By deliberately delaying the resolution of dissonance to a consonant, or stable, chord
  14. List seven things Romantic composers needed more and more of in their need to be expressive.
    Individuality of style, nationalism, exoticism, program music, tone color, harmony, and expanded range, pitch, and tempo
  15. Define rubato:
    the slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo
  16. How much longer would a typical Romantic symphony be than a Classical one?
    a typical nineteenth-century symphony might last about 45 minutes, as opposed to 25 minutes for an eighteenth-century symphony
  17. Why did composers admire Beethoven's freedom from aristocratic patronage?
    Beethoven was one of the first great composers to work as a freelance musician outside the system of aristocratic or church patronage. Romantic composers were interested not only in pleasing their contemporaries but also in being judged favorably by posterity
  18. What caused the system of aristocratic music patronage to decline?
    Because of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars (from 1789 to 1814), many aristocrats could no longer afford to maintain private opera houses, orchestras, and “composers in residence.”
  19. List four cities whose philharmonic orchestras were established in the first half of the nineteenth century.
    London, Paris, Vienna, and New York
  20. Which two men were the great concert "stars" of the nineteenth century? Which instruments?
    pianist Franz Liszt and the violinist Niccolò Paganini
  21. Why was there such a demand for solo piano pieces in the late nineteenth century?
    The piano had become a fixture in every middle class home and private music making had increased.
  22. What is the relationship of the piano to the voice in an art song?
    it serves as an interpretive partner to the voice
  23. Translate "lied".
  24. What is the difference between strophic and through-composed songs?
    Strophic is repeating the same music for each stanza of the poem, through-composed is writing new music for each stanza
  25. List two famous song cycles from the first half of the nineteenth century.
    Winterreise (Winter's Journey, 1827) by Schubert, and Dichterliebe (Poet's Love,1840) by Schumann.
  26. How many total pieces did Schubert compose when he was 18 and 19 years old?
  27. What was a Schubertiad?
    parties where only his music was played
  28. Who is the Erlking?
    the king of the elves
  29. How old was Schumann when Schubert died?
  30. Give two reasons Schumann would desire that Clara Weick present his piano pieces?
    The two were engaged when Clara was seventeen, and she was the ideal interpreter of her husband's piano works
  31. Briefly describe Clara Wieck Schumann:
    she was an acclaimed child prodigy, taught by her father, the well-known piano pedagogue Friedrich Wieck.
  32. How did Chopin make so much money?
    He earned a good living by teaching piano to the daughters of the rich, and lived in luxury.
  33. List some adjectives that describe Chopin's music.
    elegant, graceful, and melodic
  34. What does a mazurka and a polonaise have in common?
    they are both stylized dances that capture a polish spirit without actually using folk tunes
  35. What is a nocturne?
    a slow, lyrical, intimate composition for piano
  36. Define "etude."
    a study piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties
  37. T/F Liszt was admired by the public, but scorned by his fellow musicians.
  38. In what cities did Liszt develop as an artist?
    Hungary, Vienna, and Paris
  39. Who had the most influence on Liszt's performance style?
  40. List several of Liszt's interests and activities (10 in the book):
    Teaching, writing music criticisms, writing books on Chopin and Gypsy music, playing the piano, Paganini's violin pieces, composing music, conducting music, religion
  41. What musical form did Liszt create?
    Symphonic poem, or tone poem
  42. How did Liszt promote the appreciation of opera and symphonies?
    Liszt's transcriptions made it possible for people to play operas and symphonies on their own pianos
  43. How is a tone poem different from a symphony?
    A tone poem only has one movement
  44. How old was Liszt when he published the second, more difficult version of "Transcendental Etudes."
  45. What two countries did Mendelssohn work in?
    Germany and England
  46. How many operas did Mendelssohn compose?
  47. As a conductor at age 20, Mendelssohn reintroduced which composer to Europe?
  48. Which composition did Mendelssohn derive from a Shakesperian play?
    The Midsummer Night’s Drean
  49. In what way does the first movement of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto depart from its classical precedents?
    Traditionally, the opening movement of a concerto began with an extended section for orchestra. But Mendelssohn's first movement begins with the soloist, who presents the main theme.
  50. List three good examples of programmatic music of the Romantic period:
    Berlioz's Fantastic Symphony, Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet, and Smetana'sMoldau
  51. How does one know the "program" of a specific piece?
    by the title or by the composer's explanatory comments
  52. How is a concert overture different from an opera overture?
    A concert overture has one movement, usually in sonata form
  53. What about the Berlioz' "Fantastic Symphony" startled Parisians?
    its sensationally autobiographical program, its amazingly novel orchestration, and its vivid depiction of the weird and diabolical
  54. What price did Berlioz' have to pay for his unconventional style?
    Berlioz's unconventional music irritated the opera and concert establishment. To get a hearing for his works, he had to arrange concerts at his own expense—an enormous undertaking that drained him financially, physically, and emotionally.
  55. Describe Berlioz' melodies:
    It includes abrupt contrasts, fluctuating dynamics, and many changes in tempo
  56. What did the melodic theme or "idee' fixe" represent in "Symphony Fantastique"?
    the beloved
  57. What medieval chant does Berlioz use to represent eternal damnation in the fifth movement?(not on the CD)
    Berlioz saves the heaviest orchestration for the last two movements
  58. What person unintentionally created feelings of national pride in the various countries of Europe around 1800?
    Fifty times
  59. What makes a composition "nationalistic"?
    They used folk songs and dances and created original melodies with a folk flavor
  60. List 12 nationalistic composers and their respective countries.
    Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, and Borodin from Russia; Smetana and Dvořák from Bohemia; Edvard Grieg (1843–1907) from Norway; Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) from Finland; and Isaac Albéniz (1860–1909) from Spain
  61. Why did Dvorak go to Spillville?How old was he then?
    Dvořák learned about the American heartland by spending a summer in Spillville, Iowa, where there was a colony of Czechs.
  62. Why was Tchaikovski's marriage a disaster?
    He was a homosexual and attempted suicide two weeks after his marriage began. He also had a nervous collapse.
  63. List 3 of Tchaikovski's ballets:three orchestral overtures:
    Ballets: Swan Lake (1876), Sleeping Beauty (1889), and The Nutcracker(1892). Orchestras :the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth (Pathétique) Symphonies (1877, 1888, and 1893); Piano Concerto No. 1 in B Flat Minor (1875); the Violin Concerto (1878); and the overture-fantasy Romeo and Juliet (1869), Overture 1812, Marche slave
  64. Who was the woman in Brahm's life?
    Clara Schumann
  65. Why did Brahms leave Hamburg for Vienna?
    He was passed over for the position of conductor of the Philharmonic Orchestra in Hamburg
  66. What 3 mellow instruments did Brahms particularly like?
    viola, clarinet, and French horn
  67. What is Brahm's masterpiece choral work?
    General Requiem
  68. How old was Verdi when he composed his first opera?his last?
    26; 79
  69. List 3 operas Verdi composed in his late thirties:two in his seventies:
    Rigoletto(1851), Il Trovatore (1853), and La Traviata (1853); Aïda(1871), Otello (1887),
  70. Why does Rigoletto desire to kill his master, the duke of Mantua?
    The duke seduced his daughter, Gilda
  71. What brought fame and fortune to Puccini?
    the enormous success of La Bohéme
  72. What are 5 things Wagner did to make his operas fit his idea of "music-drama"?
    continuous musical instead of traditional arias, recitatives, and ensembles; there are no breaks where applause can interrupt. His vocal line is inspired by the rhythms and pitch of the German text. the focus from voice to orchestra and treating the orchestra symphonically. His expanded and colorful orchestration expresses the drama and constantly develops, transforms, and intertwines musical ideas. (And the orchestral sound is so full that only very powerful voices can cut through it.) brief, recurrent musical ideas called leit motifs, or leading motives
  73. What is the "Ring of the Niebelung"?
    a ring that can bestow immense power on anyone who wears it
  74. List 3 other of Wagner's operas.
    Parsifal, Tristan and Isolde, and Rienzi
Card Set
Music E5
Music E5
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