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Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention & control of obesity & associated diseases.
1. Holds Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD) degree
2. Specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of teeth & tissues of the oral cavity.
Physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of the stomach & intestines.
Physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of the internal organs & related body systems.
Dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of the teeth & related facial structures.
Dental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth.
Physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, & anus.
1. Where food is digested & nutrients
are absorbed into the bloodstream
2. Extends from pyloric sphincter to cecum (the first part of large intestine)
organ up to 20 ft. long
- 4. Consists of 3 sections:
- .....a. Duodenum
- .....b. Jejunum
- .....c. Ileum
1. First portion of small intestine
2. Extends from pylorus to jejunum
1. Middle portion of small intestine
2. Extends from duodenum to the ileum
1. Last & longest portion of small intestine
2. Extends from jejunum to cecum of large intestine.
1. Where waste products of digestion
in preparation for excretion
through the anus.
2. Extends from
the end of the small intestine
) to the anus
3.About twice as wide as the small intestine
, but only 1/4 as long
- 4. There are 4 major sections:
- .....a. Cecum
- .....b. Colon
- .....c. Rectum
- .....d. Anus
1. Pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen.
2. Extends from the end of the ileum to the beginning of the colon.
3. Veriform appendix hangs from lower portion.
Ring-like muscle that controls flow from ileum (of small intestine) into the cecum (of the large intestine.)
Veriform appendix (appendix)
1. Hangs from lower portion of the cecum (so in lower right quadrant of abdomen.)
2. Consists of lymphoid tissue & plays a part in immune system function.
Means worm-like shape.
1. Longest portion of the large intestine
- 2. Subdivided into 4 parts:
- .....a. Ascending colon - travels upward from cecum to underside of liver.
.....b. Transverse colon
- passes horizontally
from right to left toward
.....c. Descending colon
- Travels down left side of abdominal cavity to sigmoid colon
.....d. Sigmoid colon
- S-shaped structure
that continues from descending colon above joining with rectum below
Means curved like letter S
1. Widest division of the large intestine.
2. Makes up last 4 inches of large intestine, ending at the anus.
1. Lower opening of digestive tract
- 2. Flow of waste through anus is controlled by:
- .....a. Internal anal sphincter
- .....b. External anal sphincter
Refers to the anus & rectum as a single unit.
Accessory Digestive Organs
Play key role in digestive process, but are not part of the GI tract.
1. Accessory digestive organ
2. Large organ
located in right upper quadrant of abdomen
- 3. Has several important functions related to removing toxins from the blood & turning food into fuel & nutrients for body:
- .....a. Processes Glucose (blood sugar):
- ..........(1.) Removes excess glucose from bloodstream
- ..........(2.) Stores glucose as glycogen (a form of starch.)
- ..........(3.) When blood sugar is low, converts glycogen back into glucose
- ..........(4.) Releases glucose for use by body
.....b. Destroys old erythrocytes
(red blood cells
.....c. Removes toxins from blood
.....d. Manufactures some blood proteins
.....e. Releases bilirubin
(pigment produced from destruction of hemoglobin
) in bile
.....f. Secretes bile
which aids in digestion of fats
. (Bile travels from the liver to the gallbladder where it is concentrated & stored.
Glucose (blood sugar)
1. Removed from bloodstream by liver then
2. Stored as glycogen until needed by body when
3. Liver converts glycogen back into glucose and
4. Releases glucose for use by body
Form of starch converted from glucose by the liver and stored until needed when it is converted back into glucose for use.
1. Pigment produced by the liver from the destruction of hemoglobin
2. Released by the liver in bile.
1. Aids in digestion of fats.
2. Digestive juice secreted by the liver
3. Travels from the liver to the gallbladder where it is concentrated & stored.
1. Provides channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine
- 2. The channel is as follows:
- .....a. Small ducts in liver join together like branches to form biliary tree.
.....b. Common hepatic duct
, which is just outside the liver
, is 'trunk
' of tree.
.....c. Bile travels from liver
thru common hepatic duct to gallbladder
where it enters & exits thru
the narrow cystic duct
.....d. The cystic duct leaves
the common hepatic duct
to form the common bile duct.
.....e. The common bile duct joins
the pancreatic duct
& together they enter the duodenum
of the small intestine.
Means pertaining to bile
Common hepatic duct
- 'Trunk' of biliary tree - goes from liver to gallbladder
Narrow part of biliary tree passing thru gallbladder
Common bile duct
Part of biliary tree formed when cystic duct leaves gallbladder and rejoins the common hepatic duct.
Joins with common bile duct to enter the duodenum of the small intestine.
Order of Biliary Tree
1. Small bile ducts in liver are branches
2. Common Hepatic duct just outside liver is trunk
3. Common Hepatic duct enters & leaves gallbladder as narrow Cystic duct.
4. Cystic duct leaves gallbladder, rejoins Common Hepatic duct & form Common Bile duct.
5. Common Bile duct joins Pancreatic duct
6. Together they enter the duodenum
1. Pear-shpaed organ
about the size of an egg
2. Located under the liver
3. Stores & concentrates bile for later use
4. When bile is needed, the gallbladder contracts, forcing the bile out thru the biliary tree.
Means pertaining to the gallbladder
1. Soft, 6-inch oblong gland that is located behind the stomach.
2. Has important roles in both digestive & endocrine functions.
3. Role in digestion: Produces & secretes pancreatic juices that aid in digestion & contain sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize stomach acids & digestive enzymes.
4. Pancreatic juices leave pancreas thru the pancreatic duct that joins the common bile duct just before the entrance into the duodenum.
1. Process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use.
- 2. Flow of food is:
- ......a. Mouth
- ......b. Salivary glands
- ......c. Pharynx
- ......d. Esophagus
- ......e. Stomach
- ......f. Liver
- ......g. Gallbladder
- ......h. Pancreas
- ......i. Small intestine
- ......j. Large intestine
- ......k. Rectum
- ......l. Anus
Responsible for the chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms of nutrients for use by the body.
1. A substance, usually from food, that is necessary for normal functioning of the body.
- 2. The primary nutrients are:
- .....a. Carbohydrates
- .....b. Fats
- .....c. Proteins
- 3. The necessary nutrients, required only in small amounts are:
- .....a. Vitamins
- .....b. Minerals
1. Includes all processes involved in the body's use of nutrients
- 2. Consists of 2 parts:
- ......a. Anabolism
- ......b. Catabolism
Building up of body cells & substances from nutrients.
Breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy & carbon dioxide.
1. Process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to cells throughout the body.
- 2. How process works:
- .....a. Mucosa lining small intestine is covered with villi (singular, villus)
- .....b. Villi contain blood vessels & lacteals.
- .....c. Blood vessels absorb nutrients directly from digestive system into the bloodstream for delivery to cells of body
- ......d. Lacteals, specilized structures of the lymphatic system, absorb fat & fat-soluble vitamins that cannot be transported directly by bloodstream, and transport them via lymphatic vessels.
- .....e. As fat & fat-soluble vitamins are being transported, they are filtered by the lymph nodes in preparation for delivery to the bloodstream
(Role of mouth & salivary glands in digestion)
1. Breaks food down into smaller pieces
2. Mixes food with saliva
3. Prepares food to be swallowed
A mass of food that has been chewed & is ready to be swallowed.
NOTE: Term 'bolus' is also used in relation to the administration of medication.
Swallowing & Esophagus
(Role of pharynx & esophagus in digestion)
1. During swallowing, food travels from the mouth into the pharynx & into the esophagus.
2. Food moves downward thru esophagus via the action of gravity & peristalsis.
Role of Stomach in Digestion
1. Gastric juice of stomach begins digestive process.
2. A few nutrients enter the bloodstream thru the walls of the stomach.
3. Churning action of stomach works with gastic juices to convert food into chyme
4. Chyme passes out of stomach thru the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine.
1. Semifluid mass of partly digested food
2. Created in stomach, passes thru pyloric sphinter into small intestine
Role of Small Intestine in Digestion
- 1. Overview:
- ......a. Chyme moves thru small intestine by peristaltic action
- ......b. Food converted to usable nutrients by small intestine.
- 2. In duodenum:
- ......a. Chyme is mixed with pancreatic juice & bile.
- ......b. Bile emulsifies (breaks apart) large fat globules so enzymes in pancreatic juices can digest the fats.
- 3. In jejunum:
- ......a. Secretes large amounts of digestive enzymes
- ......b. Continues digestive process
- 4. In ileum:
- ......a. Primary function is absorption of nutrients from digested food
1. Bile breaks down large fat globules so enzymes in pancreatic juices can digest the fats.
2. This action must be completed before the nutrients can be absorbed into the body.
Role of Large Intestine in Digestion
1. Overview: The entire large intestine receives the waste products of digestion & stores them until they are eliminated by the body.
2. Food waste enter large intestine in liquid form.
3. Excess water is reabsorbed into body thru walls of large intestine to help maintain body's fluid balance
4. Remaining waste forms into feces, the solid body wastes expelled thru the rectum & anus.
5. Large intestine contains billions of bacteria, most of them harmless, which help break down organic waste.
- 6. This process creates gas:
- ......a. Borborygmus: Rumbling noise caused by movement of gas in intestine.
- ......b. Flatulence (Flatus): Passage of gas out of the body thru the rectum.
Defecation (bowel movement)
Evacuation or emptying of large intestine.
Rumbling noise caused by movement of gas IN the intestine.
Passage of gas OUT of the body thru the rectum.