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- Disputed Freud's psychological portrayal of women.
- Countered idea of penis envy (womb envy).
- Theory influenced by gender & personal experiences.
- Emphasis on social relationships.
- Argued against sex as the governing factor in personality. People are motivated by needs for security and love.
- Theme: search for love. Had many infatuations, confused and unhappy as an adolescent. Being inloved eliminated anxiety and insecurity. Desperate need for a man.
- Freudian Psychoanalisis: attraction to forceful men residue of Oedipal longings for her powerful father.
- Turned to self analysis.
- Influenced by Adler (inferiority feelings).
CHILDHOOD NEED FOR SAFETY
- Agreed with Freud about the importances of the early years of childhood.
- Social vs biological forces. Key factor: social relationship between child and parents.
- Safety need: Need for security and freedom from fear.
- Lack of warmth and affection leads to lack of security and induce hostility.
REPRESSION OF HOSTILITY
Caused by child's helplessness, fear of parent, need for genuine love, guilt feelings.
- Comes from feeling lonely and helpless in a hostile world.
- Consequence of repressing hostility.
- Defense against basic anxiety: securing affection and love, being submissive, attaining power, withdrawing.
- Engaging with others vs. withdrawing.
- Irrational defenses against anxiety.
- Ten: affection and approval, dominant partner, power, exploitation, prestige, admiration, achievement or ambition, self-sufficiency, perfection, narrow limits to life.
- Normal: manifest need to some degree.
- Abnormal: intensive, compulsive pursuit of their satisfaction is the only way to resolve basic anxiety.
- Aid only in escaping anxiety.
- 3 groups of needs.
- Person's attitudes toward self and others.
- Directions of movement as expression of needs: toward, against, away from other people.
- Similar to Adler's styles of life: getting type (compliant), dominant/ruling type (aggressive), avoiding type (detached).
- One trend is dominant: neurotic.
- Other two trends are present to a lesser degree.
- Incompatibility of three trends.
- Core of neurosis.
IDEALIZED SELF IMAGE: NORMAL PPL
- We construct a picture of ourselves to unify our personality.
- Realistic appraisal of abilities, potentials, weaknesses, goals, and relations with others. Flexible and dynamic. Reflects growth and self awareness.
- To realize our full potential, our self-image must clearly reflect our true self.
IDEALIZED SELF IMAGE: NEUROTICS
- Idealized self-image based on an unattainable ideal.
- Tyranny of the shoulds.
- Static, inflexible and unyielding.
- Discrepancy between idealized and real self-image.
- Cope through externalization of the conflict.
- Womb Envy: Envy males feel toward females due to her capacity for motherhood.
- Flight from Womanhood: Women deny their femininity; unconsciously wish they were men; can lead to sexual inhibitions.
- Oedipus Complex: Not sexual; conflict between dependence and hostility.
- Motherhood or Carrer?: Conflict many women have difficulty resolving.
- Recognition of social and cultural forces.
ASSESSMENT IN HORNEY'S THEORY
- Modified Freudian techniques of free association and dream analysis.
- Importance of relationship between analyst and patient.
ERIKSON'S EXTENSION OF FREUD'S THEORY
- Elaborated on Freud's developmental stages (entire life span).
- Placed more emphasis on ego than id (ego independent).
- Recognized impact of cultural and historical forces.
- Life theme: identity crisis.
- Trained in psychoanalysis.
- Analyzed by Anna Freud.
- Placed importance on social influences.
- Study of child-rearing practices of Sioux Indians (reinforced the influence of culture on childhood).
- Emphasized psychosocial NOT biological.
- Series of personal conflicts (crisis).
- Potential for conflict exists at birth (genetic).
- Prominent at different stages when our environment demands certain adaptations (environmental).
- Turning point at each developmental stage.
- Response: adaptive vs. maladaptive.
- Goal: adaptive/maladaptive balance.
- Conflict shoudl be resolved to continue in normal developmental sequence.
- If conflict is unresolved it is less likely to adapt to later problems.
- Each stage allows to develop basic strengths.
Motivating characteristics and beliefs deriving from satisfactory resolution of crisis at each stage.
- Maldevelopment: when the ego consists solely of a single way of coping with conflict.
- Only adaptive tendency: neuroses (maladaptive)
- Only negative tendency: psychoses (malignant)
QUESTIONS ABOUT HUMAN NATURE
ASSESSMENT IN ERICKSON'S THEORY
- Play therapy.
- Anthropological studies.
- Psychohistorical analysis (biographical studies).
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS BASED ON ERIKSON'S THEORY
- Ego-identity Scale.
- Ego-identity Process Questionnaire.
- Loyola Generativity Scale.
RESEARCH ON ERIKSON'S THEORY
- Case study.
- Sex differences in play construction: analysis of structures built by children.
- Empirical studies support psychosocial stages of development.
- Identity crisis may occura later than age 18.
RAYMOND CATTELL, EYSENCK AND OTHER TRAIT THEORISTS
- Goal: predict behavior in response to a given stimulus situation (No reference to changing abnormal to normal).
- Focus on "normal" people.
- Aim: study NOT treat personality.
- Rigorously scientific: Multiple measurements; much data.
Statistical technique based on correlations to find underlying common factors.
- Mental elements of personality.
- Understanding traits allows understanding of person.
- Reaction tendencies, relatively permanent, basic structural units of the personality.
possessed by all.
possessed by few.
skills and work toward goals.
behavioral style in response to environment.
describe motivations and interests.
correlated traits, but without common factor/source.
source traits dependent on physiology.
source traits learned from social/environmental interactions.
SOURCE TRAITS: BASIC FACTORS
- 16 source traits identified.
- 16PF Questionnaire.
- Bipolar form (two ends of continuum).
- Source Traits: Basic elements of personality as atoms are the basic units of the physical world.
DYNAMIC TRAITS: MOTIVATING FORCE
- Concerned with motivation.
- 2 kinds: ergs and sentiments.
- Innate energy source/driving force for all behaviors; constitutional source traits that provide energy for goal-oriented behavior.
- Anger, appeal, curiosity, disgust, gregariousness, hunger, protection, security, self-assertion, self-submission, sex.
- environmental-mold source traits that motivate behavior.
- can be unlearned.
INFLUENCES OF HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT
- Heredity and environment shape personality.
- Compared similarities found between siblings.
- 1/3 of personality is genetically based.
- 2/3 of personality is social/environmental influences.
CATTELL'S STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
ASSESSMENT IN CATTELL'S THEORY
- L-data: Involve overt behaviors that are rated by an observer and occur in a naturalistic setting.
- Q-data: self-report ratings of our characteristics, attitudes, and interests. Limitations: superficail self-awareness and participants may deliberately falsify their responses.
- T-data: "objective" tests (resistant to faking).
- Based on 16 major source traits.
- Intended for ppl 16+ years of age.
- Responses scored objectively.
- Widely used to assess personality for research, clinical diagnosis, and predicting occupational success.
RESEARCH ON CATTELL'S THEORY: 3 WAYS TO STUDY PERSONALITY
- Bivariate: standard laboratory experimental method (too restrictive).
- Clinical: case studies, dream analysis, free association, etc. (highly subjective).
- Multivariate: sophisticated statistical procedure of factor analysis. (highly specific data).
EYSENCK & OTHER TRAIT THEORISTS
- Study of the relationship between genetic or hereditary factors and personality traits.
- Allport and Cattel among first to suggest role of inherited factors in personality.
DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY
- Agreed with Cattell that personality is composed of traits derived by the factor analytic method but critical of Cattell's technique because of potential subjectivity.
- Personality Inventory with wife Sibyl.
- Superfactors: 3 Dimensions; combination of traits or factors.
- P: Psychoticism vs. Impulse Control.
- E: Extraversion vs. Introversion.
- N: Neuroticism vs. Emotional Stability.
- Traits and dimensions tend to remain stable from childhood through adulthood.
- Extraverts: oriented toward the outside world; prefer company of other people.
- Sociable, impulsive, adventurous, assertive, dominant.
BIOLOGICAL/GENETIC DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EXTRAVERTS VS. INTROVERTS
- Lower base level of cortical arousal in extraverts: seek excitement and stimulation to raise it.
- Higher levels of cortical arousal in introverts: shy away from stimulation and excitement; greater sensitivity to low-level stimuli, lower pain thresholds.
- Neurotics: anxious, depressed, tense, irrational, moody.
- Eysenck: largely inherited; people genetically predisposed either toward neuroticism or toward emotional stability.
- Neurotics work better under stress.
- High neuroticism: greater activity in sympathetic branch of ANS(fight or flight).
- Chronic hypersensitivity, heightened emotionality.
- Psychotics: aggressive, antisocial, tough-minded, cold, egocentric. Cruel, hostile, insensitive to the needs of others.
- Substance abuse and creativity.
- Large genetic component, also parenting.
- Mixed gender findings.
- Some support for criminality.
- Eysenck: diversity of all types needed; functioning determined by adaptation to social environment.
PRIMARY ROLE OF HEREDITY
- Traits and dimensions determined primarily by heredity; effects of environmental influences limited.
- Compared identical (monozygotic) to fraternal (dizygotic) twins.
- Adoption studies show more similarity with biological parents.
ROBERT McCRAE & PAUL COSTA: FIVE-FACTOR MODEL
- O: openness
- C: conscientiousness
- E: extraversion
- A: agreeableness
- N: neuroticism
CROSS-CULTURAL CONSISTENCY AND STABILITY
- 5 Factors found in 50+ diverse countries.
- Differences in relative importance and social desirability by culture.
- Stability shown from childhood to adulthood.
- Decrease in neuroticism from adolescence to adulthood.
- High extraversion, low neuroticism: correlated with well-being, emotional stability.
- High agreeableness, high conscientiousness: greater emotional well-being.
- Extraversion: social support and positive emotions.
- Neuroticism and negative outcomes.
- High openness: wide range of interests, seek challenges.
- Conscientiousness: better grades, better work, and health outcomes.
- Agreebleness: fewer behavior problems.
- Overall: high predictive value of traits.
- Some controversy about number of factors.
ARNOLD BUSS & ROBERT PLOMIN: TEMPERAMENT THEORY
- Temperaments: building blocks of personality.
- 3 Temperaments: Emotionality, Activity, Sociability.
- Combine to form personality patterns.
- Two tests to assess personality: EAS, EASI.
GENETICS & ENVIRONMENT
- Research with twins: temperaments primarily inherited. Persist throughout lifespan.
- Recognized environmental influences. Inherit dispositions, whether they are realized depends on experience.
- EMOTIONALITY: level of arousal/excitability.
- ACTIVITY: physical energy and vigor. Inherited component to activity.
- SOCIABILITY: degree of preference for contact and interaction with others.
- All stable through childhood and adulthood.
- Distress, fearfulness, anger.
- Two extremes: Both extremes are maladaptive.
- People who are unemotional (nothing seems to disturb them).
- People who are very emotional (sensitive to slightest provocation).
- High sociability: prefer group activities and company of others.
- Low sociability: prefer solitary activities and avoid others.
- Adaptive characteristic.
REFLECTIONS ON THE TRAIT APPROACH
- Strong biological component for personality.
- Caution to avoid rushing to extreme views.
- Personality: both genetics and environment.
ABRAHAM MASLOW: NEEDS-HIERARCHY THEORY
- Founder and spiritual leader of humanistic psychology.
- Critical of behaviorism.
- Critical of psychoanalysis.
- Studied healthy, mature, creative people.
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT: HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
- 5 innate needs: activate and direct human behavior.
- Instinctoid: hereditary component.
- Learning and social influences.
- Arranged from strongest to weakest.
- Lower needs must be satisfied first.
- Onee need dominates at a time.
- Order of the needs can be changed.
CHARACTERISTICS OF NEEDS
- The lower the need, the greater the strength and priority.
- Higher needs appear later in life.
- Lower needs called deficit or deficiency needs.
- Higher needs called growth or being needs.
- Satisfaction of higher needs is beneficial psychologically and leads to contentment and happiness.
- Good external circumstances needed for satisfaction of higher needs.
- Needs do not need to be fully satisfied before next need becomes important.
- Basic survival neeeds: food, water, air, sex.
- Relate to physiological deficiency.
- Rarely a concern for middle-class Americans.
- Major concern for poor people and those in third world countries.
- Important drives for infants and neurotic adults.
- React to threat to security.
- Preference for structure or routine.
- Avoidance to new experiences.
- Preference for order over chaos.
BELONGINGNESS AND LOVE NEEDS
- Expressed through close relationship with a friend, lover, or mate, or through social relationhsip formed within a group.
- Difficult to satisfy in a mobile society.
- Join a church, club, volunteer organization, etc.
- Need to give and receive love.
- Sex is a way to express the love need.
- Failure to meet this need is a fundamental cause of emotional maladjustment.
- Two forms: from ourselves and from others.
- From ourselves: self worth.
- From others: status and recognition.
- Satisfaction leads to feeling confident of our strength, worth, and adequacy.
- Failure to satisfy leads to inferiority feelings and feelings of helplessness.
- Highest need.
- Self-Actualization: Fullest development of the self.
- Max. realization and fulfillment of our potentials, talents, and abilities.
- If self-actualization is not reached, we will be restless, frustrated, and discontent.
- Everyone is capable of reaching self-actualization.
NECESSARY CONDITION FOR SELF-ACTUALIZATION
- Freedom from societal or self constraints.
- Freedom from distraction by the lower-order needs.
- Secure in our self image and relationships with others.
- Realistic knowledge of self.
- Second set of innate needs: to know and to understand.
- Exist outside the hierarchy.
- Need to know stronger than the need to understand.
- Historical evidence places cognitive needs above safety needs.
- Emotionally healthy adults motivated to improve their knowledge.
- Must pursue or will become bored.
- Appear in late infancy and early childhood.
- Expressed as a natural curiosity.
- Necessary for self-actualization.
STUDY OF SELF ACTUALIZERS
- (B-motivation or Being)
- Max. personal potential and enriching one's life; developing from within, not striving for a particula goal.
- Motivation for people who are not self-actualizers: D-motivation or Deficiency--striving for something specific to make up for something that is lacking.
- Self-actualizers: concerned with fulfilling potential and knowing and understanding environment.
- Stages of being.
- Failure to satisfy metaneeds is harmful and produces metapathology.
Thwarting of self-development.
STUDY OF SELF-ACTUALIZERS
- Maslow estimated that they make up 1% of less of the population.
- Failure to become self-actualizing:
- higher the need, the weaker it is.
- inadequate education.
- improper child-rearing.
Doubts about our own abilities; fear that maximizing our potential will lead to a situation with which we will be unable to cope.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-ACTUALIZERS
- Efficient perception of reality.
- Acceptance of themselves, others, and nature.
- A spontaneity, simplicity, and natrualness.
- A focus on problems outside themselves.
- A sense of detachment and the need for privacy.
- A freshness of appreciation.
- Mystical or peak experiences.
- Social interest.
- Profound interpersonal relations.
- A democratic character structure.
- Resistance to enculturation.
QUESTIONS ABOUT HUMAN NATURE
ASSESSMENT IN MASLOW'S THEORY
- Identified self-actualizers (Einstein, Jefferson, Eleanor Roosevelt) and used a variety of techniques to asses their personalities.
- Historical figures: biographical material.
- Living subjects: interviews, free association, projective tests.
- Personal Orientation Inventory (POI): self-report questionnaire developed by Everett Shostrom to measure self-actualization.
RESEARCH ON MASLOW'S THEORY
- Critics: methods were not rigorous or controlled.
- Pilot studies only.
- Agreed but self-actualizers could not be studied by accepted scientific procedures.
- Did not use: case studies, experimental or correlational methods.
- Support for hierarchy and self-actualization.
- Contemporary outgrowth of self-actualization theory.
- Facilitated by intrinsic motivation.
- 3 basic needs: Competence, Autonomy, Relatedness.
- Satisfaction of these needs and focus on intrinsic motivation positively correlated with high self-esteem and self-actualization.