Rest of Health Psych

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Rest of Health Psych
2012-03-27 17:09:24
health psych

drugs, alcohol, diet, STDs
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  1. Alcohol __ brain processes
    • slows
    • brain metabolizes glucose
  2. Chronic alcohol effects on the brain:
    • enlarged ventricles
    • hippocampus altered
    • cerebral cortex smaller (less brain tissue)
  3. Corsicox Syndrome
    memory defecit, effects limbis system
  4. 4 classes of drugs
    • Stimulants
    • Depressants
    • Narcotics
    • Hallucinogens
  5. Stimulants
    • increase CNS activity, HR, respiration, BP
    • causes euphoria
  6. Stimulant examples
    • Nicotine
    • Caffeine
    • Cocaine
    • Amphetemines
  7. Cocaine
    • From a cocoa plant
    • powerful appetite supressant
    • blocks reuptake of dopamine (not removed so stays longer and produces greater effects)
  8. Amphetemines
    • Reduce appetite
    • In ADHD medication- allows for focus
    • increases dopamine activity
    • most addictive form of amphetemines of methamphetemines
  9. Depressants
    • Supress CNS
    • increase GABA activity
  10. Depressant Examples
    • Barbituates-induce sleep, in sleeping pills and anesthesia
    • Tranquilizers(benzodiazopines)- valium, xanax; anti-anxiety drugs
  11. Narcotics
    • induce sleep and releive pain
    • work as an agonist-mimic in place of endorphines
    • endorphines are released during pain, intense exercise
    • can induce nausea
  12. Narcotic Examples
    • Morphine-from poppy plant, used for surgery
    • Heroin- derived from morphine, most addictive, develop tolerance quickly (nicotine is though to be as addictive as heroin)
  13. Hallucinogens
    • psychodelic drugs
    • effect serotonin
    • can cause hallucinations, delusions
  14. Hallucinogen Examples
    • LSD- can change personality
    • Mushrooms (psilocybn)
    • Ectasy
    • Marijuana- active indgredient is THC and binds to cannabinoid receptors in brain; medical marijuana for chemotherapy
  15. HS kids with no college plans smoke __ than kids going to college
  16. Marijuana is used __ between different ethnic groups
  17. Stimulants affect on body
    damage cardiovascular system because they increase BP rapidly and HR, which can lead to a stroke or myocardial infarction
  18. Methamphetimines effect on body
    • crystal meth- euphoria can last 12 to 16 hours
    • high risk for dependence and over dose
    • changes face drastically
    • decreases brain function permanently
    • Too much dopamine can result in schizophrenia-like symptoms such as hallucinatiosn and delusions
  19. Heroins effects
    • slows respiration and causes muscle weakness
    • infections in heart and collapsed vein are common
  20. Public Policies and Legal apporaches to create barriers for drug and alcohol purchase:
    • Increase prices
    • Set age limits
  21. Quitting Smoking on own
    • 60% can quit on own (not first try)
    • 20% cannot
  22. Psychosocial Method (Cognitive-Behavorial) Change Model
    • 1. Precontemplation
    • 2. Contemplation
    • 3. Preparation
    • 4. Action
    • 5. Maintenance
    • 6. Termination
  23. Psychosocial method can include motivation like
    • positive reinforcement- money vouchers
    • aversive therapy
    • cue exposure
  24. In cue exposure
    let addict see cues but not use drug, so they'll quit associating the cue with relief
  25. Alcoholics Anonymous
    • philosophy- alcoholics for life
    • goal is abstinence
    • need good social support group
    • believe in God
    • 12 steps
  26. Alcohol treatment- antabuse
    • an emetic drug that is nausea inducing
    • can be deadly- supervision
  27. Methadone
    • replacement for a narcotic to help wean addict off
    • it eliminates withdrawal dymptoms
  28. Relapse vs lapse
    • relapse= returning to full blown patterof behavior
    • lapse=minor setback
  29. Main energy source
  30. Carbohydrates
    • Simple- glucose, fructose (animal), galactose
    • Complex-2 simple coimbined or more; sucrose, lactose, starch
  31. Type 1 diabetes
    • Insulin deficient, so cells have a low amount of glucose
    • when cells have little glucose, the solute inside the cells moves outside the cells, and cells shrink
  32. Lipids
    • 10 to 30% of diet
    • Omega 3 fatty acids
    • Triglycerides
    • Cholesterol
  33. Amino Acids make up
  34. vitamins
    • organic
    • Fat soluble- A D E K
    • Water soluble- B vitaminds and C
  35. Minerals
    • inorganic
    • Mg, Fe, I, Na, K
  36. Food trend
    pos- been eating less red meat, drinking more whole milk, more poultry, rice, and vegetables

    neg-been eating more sugar, cheese, and fast food
  37. Biopsychosocial factors
    • inborn processes- prefer sweets
    • knowledge about making food choices
    • environment/experience- portion sizes, money, culture
  38. Atherosclerosis
    mix of cholesterol with other substances that form fatty patches in blood vessels
  39. lipoproteins
    LDL- bad, want this to be low

    HDL- good, want this to be high
  40. Triglycerides increase __
  41. Omega 3 will __
    increase HDL and lower LDL
  42. 5 risk factors for HD
    • over 45 men/55 women
    • smoking
    • hypertension
    • low HDL
    • family history
  43. Hypertension
    • blood pressure greater than 140/90 (systolic over diastolic)
    • blood vessels swell when there is high amount of NA in blood because water leaves cells and goes into bl vessels
  44. BMI
    • weight/height=(kg)/(m2)
    • doesn't take into account gender, muscle, lifestyle
    • <18.5 is underweight
    • 18.5 to 25 is normal
    • 25 to 30 is overweight
    • >30 is obese
  45. Biological factors of eating
    • maintain homeostasis which is controlled by brain
    • genetics-set point
  46. Psychological Factors of eating
    allostasis- nonhomeostatic cue that initiate eating
  47. Brain- control center for homeostasis- 2 parts
    • Hypothalamus
    • Brain stem
    • the two detect hormones in the body to tell us to eat or stop eating
  48. 2 major classes of neurotransmitters than are involved in eating
    • Neuropeptide y- facilitates eating. It is secreted by hypothalamus and brain stem, and controls intake of carbs
    • Insulin- facilitates supression. It is released from pancreas and increases as soon as you start eating.
    • Insulin functions to move glucose out of blood and into cells
  49. Obese people have _ amounts of insulin
    HIGH but brain has become resistant to it so it doesn't make them stop eating
  50. Type 2 diabetes
    • have high levels of insulin
    • are hypoglycemic- have low amounts of glucose in blood so body tells brain to tell the person to keep eating
  51. Leptin
    • stored in fat cells
    • signals brain to stop eating
    • another supressive hormone that is high in obese people but body has become resistant to its effects
  52. Psychological effects of eating
    • Stress
    • Social factors- eat with friends and family
    • food cues- obese people are more sensitive to reward of food
  53. Worst distribution type of fat:
    in the stomach; men tend to have this
  54. Losing Weight Methods
    • Crash/fad diets-Atkins, strict
    • Lifestyle Interventions-meet with psychologist or nutritionist, learn control-make grocery lists beforehand
    • Self-help- Weight Watchers
    • Exercise- relieves stress, it can be social, improve self-esteem, keep you in shape, good for body, allows for attractiveness
  55. Physiological effects of exercise
    • endorphines are released which relieve stress and pain
    • improves cardiovascular system
    • increases longevity
  56. Men exercise _ than women
  57. Alli (Orlistat)
    • prevents absorption of fat for weight loss
    • can cause severe gastrointestinal problems
  58. Rimonabant
    • acts as an antagonist (blocks action of a NT) that blocks cannabinoids which leads to weight loss
    • side effects include nausea
  59. Surgical Methods of Weight Loss (BMI >40)
    • Liposuction- suck fat out of certain area
    • Gastric Bypass Surgery-make stomach very small- reroute small intestine, stomach can hold 1 to 2 tsp; rapid weight loss
  60. Eating-related Psychiatric Disorders
    • Bulimia nervosa- engage in recurrent binging and purging, weight normal weight, a binge will consist of 3 to 10 thousand calories, have irregular bowel movements and dehydration
    • Anorxia- relentless pursuit of thinness, distorted body image- starve self, BMI is <17, periods affects
  61. 2 categories of STD's
    • Bacterial- treatment is antibiotics
    • Viral-no cure
  62. 4 Bacterial STD's
    • Chlamydia
    • Gonorrhea
    • Trichomoniasis
    • Syphilis
  63. Chlamydia
    • Chlamydia trachomatis
    • damages female reproductive system more than men
    • untreated can caus Pelvic inflammatory Disease
    • causes cramping, pain
    • men can develop epidytimitis- duct lining the testicles where sperm are stored
    • silent in women usually by if symptoms occur, they do so 1 to 2 weeks after infection
    • symptoms include painful urination, discharge
    • can be misdiagnosed as yeast infection
    • most prevalent bacterial STD
    • incidence is high in african americans
  64. Gonnorhea
    • very similar to Chlamydia
    • can be transferred through childbirth and cause blindness in newborn
    • more asymptomatic in women
    • thicker discharge than that of chlamydia
    • can get into eyes or mouth which can then be transmitted to others through non-sexual activity
  65. Trichomoniasis
    • more common in women
    • symptoms include grean, foul discharge, itching
    • can self diagnose as yeast infection and yeast infection medication will worsen trichomoniasis
  66. Syphilis
    • can be most serious but prevalence is low
    • stages:
    • 1. Primary-usualy develop a chancre on mouth, hands, genitals
    • 2. Secondary-rash on hands or whole body, mild flu symptoms; rash and chancre are highly contagious
    • 3. Tertiary-can cause cardiovascular disease, dementia, organ damage, blindness, or death
  67. 4 Viral STDs
    • Human Papillomavirus
    • Genital Herpes
    • Hepatitis B
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  68. HPV
    • 80% of sexually active people will have HPV by the time they're 50
    • silent
    • can cause genital warts (internal or external) or cancer (cervical cancer)
    • may be a carrier but have no symptoms
    • prevention-gardasil shot
  69. Wart/Cancer treatment
    • cryosurgery- freezing- can see cervical cells on papsmear and freeze cells in cervex
    • electrocautery- electric loop cuts out abnormal cells of cervex and cauterizes
    • laser surgery-extreme
  70. Genital herpes
    • Herpes Simplex Virus
    • 1. HSV-1- oral/labia herpes- from oral sex. Can get it as a child from parents kiss if they have it
    • 2. HSV-2- may not have symptoms but can spread it. Causes lesions/soresl first outbreak can be long and severe, and this is very contagious time. Can be passed through birth. Can be diagnosed through examination or blood test
  71. Hepatitis B
    • inflammation of the liver
    • more contagious than HIV
    • sexually associated but can be spread through any bodily fliud
    • HBV- hepatitis b virus
    • can have liver failure but is rare
  72. HIV
    • leads to AIDs
    • damages bodies immune system and allows secondary bacterial infection to kill host
    • leading cause of death globally
    • diagnosed by the loss of a certain T cell and the presence of a secondary infection
    • Can have children and not pass it to child though medicine
    • HIV treatment is very expensive
  73. Prevention of STD's
    • Education
    • Abstinence
    • Monogamy
    • Safer Sexual Practices