Card Set Information

2012-03-27 17:17:31
Learning Midterm

Learning Midterm
Show Answers:

  1. An___________makes a reinforcer less potent (it decreases the effectiveness of a reinforcer).
    Abolishing operation (AO)
  2. An ___________makes a reinforcer more potent (it creates the effectiveness of a reinforcer).
    Establishing operation (EO)
  3. These antecedent events, called _____________, alter the value of a reinforcer. There are two types: establishing and abolishing.
    Motivating operations (MO)
  4. __________ is a type of establishing operation that increases the effectiveness of most unconditioned reinforcers and some conditioned reinforcers.
  5. ___________ is the process in which a behavior is strengthened by the immediate consequence that reliably follows its occurence.
  6. A behavior that is strengthened through the process of reinforcement is called an _____________.
    Operant behavior
  7. The occurrence of a behavior is followed by the addition of a stimulus (a reinforcer) or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus which results in the strengtheing of the behavior
    Positive reinforcement
  8. The occurrence of a behavior is followed by the removal of a stimulus (an aversive stimulus) or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus which results in the strengthening of the behavior
    Negative reinforcement
  9. A __________ is an object or event that can be detected by one of the senses, and thus has the potential to influence the person.
  10. The stimulus that is presented or that appears after the behavior
    Positive reinforcer
  11. The stimulus that is removed or avoided after the behavior is called an __________.
    Aversive stimulus
  12. One type of positive reinforcement involves the opportunity to engage in a high-probability behavior (a preferred behavior) as a consequence for a low-probability behavior (a less-preferred), to increase the low-probability behavior.
    Premack principle
  13. The consequence that strengthens an operant behavior is called a _______.
  14. In ___________, the occurrence of the behavior results in the termination of an aversive stimulus that was already present when the behavior occured.
    Escape Behavior
  15. In __________, the occurrence of the behavior prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring.
    Avoidance behavior
  16. These natural reinforcers are called __________ because they function as reinforcers the first time they are presented to most human beings, no prior experience with these stimuli is needed for them to function as reinforcers.
    unconditioned reinforcers
  17. A _____________ is a stimulus that was once neutral but became established as a reinforcer by being paired with an unconditioned reinforcer or an already establishe reinforcer.
    Conditioned reinforcer
  18. In a token reinforcement program, the token is presented to the person after a desirable behavior, and later the person exchanges the token for other reinforcers.
    Backup reinforcers
  19. When a conditioned reinforcer is paired with a wide variety of other reinforcers, it is called a ___________.
    generalized conditioned reinforcer
  20. When the response produces the consequence and the consequence does not occur unless the response occurs first, we say that a __________ exists betwee the response and the consequence.
  21. _________ occurs when a person has recently consumed a large amount of a particular reinforcer or has had substantal exposure to a reinforcing stimulus.
  22. The ___________ for a particular behavior specifies whether every response is followed by a reinforcer or whether only some responses are followed by a reinforcer.
    schedule of reinforcement
  23. A ____________ is one in which each occurrence of a response is reinforced.
    continuous reinforcement schedule
  24. In an ___________ each occurrence of the response is not reinforced. Rather, responses are occasionally reinforced.
    intermittent reinforcement schedule
  25. A CRF schedule is used when a person is learning a behavior or engaging in the behavior for the first time.
  26. Once the person has acquired or learned the behavior, an intermittent reinforcement schedule is used so that the person continues to engage in the behavior.
  27. In a _________, a specific or fixed number of responses must occur before the reinforcer is delivered.
    fixed ration (FR) schedule
  28. In a _________ delivery of a reinforcer is based on the number of responses that occur, but in this case, the number of responses needed for reinforcement varies each time, around an average number.
    variable ratio (VR) schedule
  29. In a _________ schedule, the interval of time is fixed, or stays the same each time.
    fixed interval (FI)
  30. In a _______ or reinforcement, the reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after an interval of time has elapsed.
    variable interval (VI) schedule
  31. All of the schedules of reinforcement that are in effect for a person's behaviors at one time are called ____________.
    concurrent schedules of reinforcement
  32. a number of different behaviors or response options are concurrently available for the person.
    concurrent operants
  33. Occurs when a behavior that has been previously reinforced no longer results in the reinforcing consequences and, therefore, the behavior stops occurring in the future.
  34. Increase in frequency, duration, or intensity of the unreinforced behavior during the extinction process is called an ________.
    extinction burst
  35. _________ is the natural tendency for the behavior to occur again in situations that are similar to those in which it occurred and was reinforced before extintinction.
    Spontaneous recovery
  36. Intermittent reinforcement before extinction produces __________, that is, the behavior persists once extinction is implemented.
    resistance to extinction
  37. A particular behavior occurs, a consequency immediately follows the behavior, and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur again in the future.
  38. A ________ is a consequence that makes a particular behavior less likely to occur in the future.
  39. The occurrence of a behavior is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus, and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future.
    Positive punishment
  40. The occurrence of a behavior is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus, and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future.
    Negative punishment
  41. painful stimuli or extreme levels of stimulation have biological importance. Humans have developed the capacity for their behavior to be punished by these naturally aversive events without any prior training or experience.
    unconditioned punishers
  42. _________ are stimuli or events that function as punishers only after being paired with unconditioned punishers or other existing conditioned punishers.
    conditioned punisher
  43. Has been paired with a variety of other unconditioned and conditioned punishers over the course of a person's life.
    generalized conditioned punisher
  44. Stimulus events that precede an operant response. The stimuli, events, situations, or circumstances that are present when it occurs or were present immediately before the behavior.
  45. The antecedent stimulus that is present when a behavior is reinforced is known as the _________.
    discriminative stimulus (SD)
  46. The process of reinforcing a behavior only when a specific antecedent stimulus is present is called _________.
    stimulus discrimination training
  47. During discrimination training, any antecedent stimulus that is present when te behavior is not reinforced is called an _______.
  48. stimulus discrimination training involves a _____________, in which the consequence is contingent on the occurrence of the behavior only in the presence of the specific antecedent stimulus called the SD.
    three-term contingency
  49. ________ takes place when a behavior occurs in the presence of stimuli that are similar in some ways to the SD that was present during stimulus discrimination.
  50. Antecedent stimuli that share similar features and have the same functional effect on a particular behavior.
    Stimulus class
  51. Involves the manipulation of consequences.
    operant conditioning
  52. _____are controlled (elicited) by antecedent stimuli.
    respondent behaviors
  53. ______ involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuli.
    Respondent conditioning
  54. _____ are controled by their consequences.
    Operant behaviors
  55. Responses elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no conditioning or learning has occurred.
    Unconditioned responses (UR)
  56. In _______, the NS precedes the US, but the NS ends before the US is presented.
    trace conditioning
  57. In _________, the NS is presented and then the US is presented before the NS ends.
    Delay conditioning
  58. In ________, the NS and US are presented at the same time.
    simultaneous conditioning
  59. In _______, the US is presented before the NS.
    backward conditioning
  60. __________ occurs when an NS is paired with an already-established CS and the NS becomes a CS.
    Higher-order conditioning
  61. Extinction of a CR, called __________, invovles the repeated presentation of the CS without presenting the US.
    respondent extinction
  62. We say that the more intense stimulus is more _______.