An___________makes a reinforcer less potent (it decreases the effectiveness of a reinforcer).
Abolishing operation (AO)
An ___________makes a reinforcer more potent (it creates the effectiveness of a reinforcer).
Establishing operation (EO)
These antecedent events, called _____________, alter the value of a reinforcer. There are two types: establishing and abolishing.
Motivating operations (MO)
__________ is a type of establishing operation that increases the effectiveness of most unconditioned reinforcers and some conditioned reinforcers.
___________ is the process in which a behavior is strengthened by the immediate consequence that reliably follows its occurence.
A behavior that is strengthened through the process of reinforcement is called an _____________.
The occurrence of a behavior is followed by the addition of a stimulus (a reinforcer) or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus which results in the strengtheing of the behavior
The occurrence of a behavior is followed by the removal of a stimulus (an aversive stimulus) or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus which results in the strengthening of the behavior
A __________ is an object or event that can be detected by one of the senses, and thus has the potential to influence the person.
The stimulus that is presented or that appears after the behavior
The stimulus that is removed or avoided after the behavior is called an __________.
One type of positive reinforcement involves the opportunity to engage in a high-probability behavior (a preferred behavior) as a consequence for a low-probability behavior (a less-preferred), to increase the low-probability behavior.
The consequence that strengthens an operant behavior is called a _______.
In ___________, the occurrence of the behavior results in the termination of an aversive stimulus that was already present when the behavior occured.
In __________, the occurrence of the behavior prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring.
These natural reinforcers are called __________ because they function as reinforcers the first time they are presented to most human beings, no prior experience with these stimuli is needed for them to function as reinforcers.
A _____________ is a stimulus that was once neutral but became established as a reinforcer by being paired with an unconditioned reinforcer or an already establishe reinforcer.
In a token reinforcement program, the token is presented to the person after a desirable behavior, and later the person exchanges the token for other reinforcers.
When a conditioned reinforcer is paired with a wide variety of other reinforcers, it is called a ___________.
generalized conditioned reinforcer
When the response produces the consequence and the consequence does not occur unless the response occurs first, we say that a __________ exists betwee the response and the consequence.
_________ occurs when a person has recently consumed a large amount of a particular reinforcer or has had substantal exposure to a reinforcing stimulus.
The ___________ for a particular behavior specifies whether every response is followed by a reinforcer or whether only some responses are followed by a reinforcer.
schedule of reinforcement
A ____________ is one in which each occurrence of a response is reinforced.
continuous reinforcement schedule
In an ___________ each occurrence of the response is not reinforced. Rather, responses are occasionally reinforced.
intermittent reinforcement schedule
A CRF schedule is used when a person is learning a behavior or engaging in the behavior for the first time.
Once the person has acquired or learned the behavior, an intermittent reinforcement schedule is used so that the person continues to engage in the behavior.
In a _________, a specific or fixed number of responses must occur before the reinforcer is delivered.
fixed ration (FR) schedule
In a _________ delivery of a reinforcer is based on the number of responses that occur, but in this case, the number of responses needed for reinforcement varies each time, around an average number.
variable ratio (VR) schedule
In a _________ schedule, the interval of time is fixed, or stays the same each time.
fixed interval (FI)
In a _______ or reinforcement, the reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after an interval of time has elapsed.
variable interval (VI) schedule
All of the schedules of reinforcement that are in effect for a person's behaviors at one time are called ____________.
concurrent schedules of reinforcement
a number of different behaviors or response options are concurrently available for the person.
Occurs when a behavior that has been previously reinforced no longer results in the reinforcing consequences and, therefore, the behavior stops occurring in the future.
Increase in frequency, duration, or intensity of the unreinforced behavior during the extinction process is called an ________.
_________ is the natural tendency for the behavior to occur again in situations that are similar to those in which it occurred and was reinforced before extintinction.
Intermittent reinforcement before extinction produces __________, that is, the behavior persists once extinction is implemented.
resistance to extinction
A particular behavior occurs, a consequency immediately follows the behavior, and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur again in the future.
A ________ is a consequence that makes a particular behavior less likely to occur in the future.
The occurrence of a behavior is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus, and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future.
The occurrence of a behavior is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus, and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future.
painful stimuli or extreme levels of stimulation have biological importance. Humans have developed the capacity for their behavior to be punished by these naturally aversive events without any prior training or experience.
_________ are stimuli or events that function as punishers only after being paired with unconditioned punishers or other existing conditioned punishers.
Has been paired with a variety of other unconditioned and conditioned punishers over the course of a person's life.
generalized conditioned punisher
Stimulus events that precede an operant response. The stimuli, events, situations, or circumstances that are present when it occurs or were present immediately before the behavior.
The antecedent stimulus that is present when a behavior is reinforced is known as the _________.
discriminative stimulus (SD)
The process of reinforcing a behavior only when a specific antecedent stimulus is present is called _________.
stimulus discrimination training
During discrimination training, any antecedent stimulus that is present when te behavior is not reinforced is called an _______.
stimulus discrimination training involves a _____________, in which the consequence is contingent on the occurrence of the behavior only in the presence of the specific antecedent stimulus called the SD.
________ takes place when a behavior occurs in the presence of stimuli that are similar in some ways to the SD that was present during stimulus discrimination.
Antecedent stimuli that share similar features and have the same functional effect on a particular behavior.
Involves the manipulation of consequences.
_____are controlled (elicited) by antecedent stimuli.
______ involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuli.
_____ are controled by their consequences.
Responses elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no conditioning or learning has occurred.
Unconditioned responses (UR)
In _______, the NS precedes the US, but the NS ends before the US is presented.
In _________, the NS is presented and then the US is presented before the NS ends.
In ________, the NS and US are presented at the same time.
In _______, the US is presented before the NS.
__________ occurs when an NS is paired with an already-established CS and the NS becomes a CS.
Extinction of a CR, called __________, invovles the repeated presentation of the CS without presenting the US.
We say that the more intense stimulus is more _______.