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What is COPD?
Emphasyma & Bronchitis
limit air exchange
What are some signs and symptoms of COPD?
- chronic cough, SOB,
- lots of mucus secretions lots of speutum
- impaired exiatory air flow cstic fibrosi
- can cause sleep apnea
what position can COPD pts not get in
lay down flat
What does chronic bronchitis do?
puts strain on heart
AVG ->PACO2> 50 PaO2 <50
L ventricule enlarges
what can develope from Chronic Bronchitus?
what happens to the sides of the heart in heart failure?
When one side fails the other will eventually fail
What is a 2ndary problem of COPD
brochial asthma it is reverable
what groups is brochial asthma usually seen in
the very old and the very young
how many cases of bronchospasms can be imparative in kids?
- side effects
what is the leading cause of Pulmonary emphysema?
what happens in Pulmonary emphysema?
- impaired gas exchange
- extention of aveoli
What happens to the lungs in pulmonary emphysema?
from scar tissue replacing lung tissue
what are the 2 main types of pulmonary emphysema
what type of pulmonary emphysema is the most common?
what does centribular pulmonary emphysema affect?
- affects bronchiols
- central part of resp globulal
- preferal edema
- heart failure
- up red blood cells to compensate
what population does centribular pulmonary emphysema usually occur in?
What happens in pan lobular pulmonary emphysema?
generalized destruction of resp___ in lower resp tract
what is pan lobular pulmonary emphysema caused by?
what enzyme is missing in pan lobular pulmonary emphysema?
alpha tripson enzyme
what population is pan lobular pulmonary emphysema usually seen in?
what does alpha tripson enzyme do?
protects the lungs
what happens if you don't have tripson enzyme?
get lung destruction
What are some S/S of emphysema?
- coughing, R sidedheart failure
- dyspnea, pulmonary edema
- exerctional dyspnia
- destended neck veins
- chronic cough
- rigid rib cage
- exporation takes longer
- liver congestion
What is usually the 1st symptom of emphesyma
what do people do as their rib cages get rigid with emphysema?
use accessory muscles to breath
what causes pulmonary edema in emphesyma?
R ventricle cant pump blood efficiently
what does liver congestion from emphysema cause
painful to palpitate liver
what are some S/S of advanced emphysema
- sort of jerky speach
- look sick
- neck veins distain with expiration
- lower O2 lower memory & more confusion
what happens if emphysema is not treated as it progresses?
- lathargic stupor
- CO2 narcosis
- fluid around heart -hear muffled
- hyperinflated lung
- over amount of air left in lungs -> residual volume
what is CO2 narcrosis?
too much CO2
what is pulmonary function test for?
what do you look at in pulmonary function test?
- PaO2 -<55
- CBC- up WBC
- sputum -positive cultures
what happens as emphysema gets worse?
- body tries to compensate to prevent acidosis
- hyerpathnia---too much CO2
what are some goals in Emphysema?
- low disease progression
- treat symptoms
- manage symptoms
what are some nursing interventions of emphysema
- assess respiratory status
- monitor blood drug levels--- check theraputic levels
- nursing care plans important
- encourage fluids
- look for signs of infection
- lots of teaching and evals
- observe for drug side effects
what type of meals should pt with emphysema get?
- small high quality frequent meals
- 3-4x / day
how do people get cystic fibrosis?
- inhearited from both parents
- 1 in 3 people are carriers
what are the chances of getting cystic fibrosis?
- 2 carriers-- 25% chance of having kids w/ disorder
- 25% chance of baby born normal no carrier
- 50% chance of baby born carrier
what causes cystic fibrosis?
- falty transport of sodium & chloride
- affects enternal & outer surface