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- a modulator
- analog synthesizerinvented by Robert Moog
- popularized by Wendy/Walter Carlos
- "switched on bach"
- invented by Donald Buchla
- one of 1st analog modular synthesizers for live performance
- "father of computer music"
- invented singing computerprogram called Music 1/2/3
- played by GROOVE and Radio Baton
- made of 8 bits
- 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
- higher bits = higher quality
operation that begins w/ some initial conditions and gives output which follows from set of rules
set of rules that carry out computation
- 1st composer in research
- worked with algorithms and chance programs
- shepherd's tone (up version)
- worked with Elvis stuff, "blue suede shoes"
- replaced Tenney in 1964
- researched psychacoustics
- shepherd's tone (down)
- developed different timbres for computer
- "computer suite for little boy"
- studied effects of wide vibrato sounds
- discovered FM synthesis technique
- modulates periodic waveform w/ another
- enabled stable computer oscillator
- Music Instrument Digital Interface
- proposed by Sequential Systems, Oberheim, Roland Corp.
- sent in serial binary as series of bits
- does not describe soundcontrol message
Yamaha DX7 Synthesizer
- invented in 1983
- first fully digital MIDI synthesizer
- came from Chowning's frequency modulation synthesis
first real time granular synthesis
first compositional theory for grains of sound
- Amplitude Modulation
- Frequency Modulation
- Columbia: Otto Luening, Vladmir Ussachevsky
- Princeton: Milton Babbit
- purchased/created RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer
RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer
- first programmable electronic music synthesizer
- Princeton-Columbia Collaboration
- funded by rockefeller foundation
- Charles Wuorinen's "Times Encomium"