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(Weather) List the categories of turbulence, the specific types of turbulence within these categories and the root causes of each.
Low-level turbulence (LLT)
- 1. Low-Level Turbulence (LLT)
- 2. Turbulence in and Near Thunderstorms (TNT)
- 3. Clear-Air Turbulence (CAT)
- 4. Mountain Wave Turbulence (MWT)
: Low-level turbulence is defined as that turbulence which occurs primarily within the atmospheric boundary layer. LLT includes mechanical turbulence
, thermal turbulence
, and turbulence in fronts
. Although wake turbulence
may be encountered at any altitude, it is particularly hazardous near the ground, so it is also considered with LLT.
: Over flat ground, significant LLT occurs when surface winds are strong, this is called mechanical turbulence. It occurs because friction slows the wind in the lowest layers causing the air to turn over in turbulent eddies. These eddies cause fluctuations (gusts) in winds and vertical velocities. As they become stronger, the mechanical turbulence extends to greater heights above the ground. The presence of obstructions such as buildings and stands of trees increase the effect of surface roughness and strengthen LLT and wind shear.
Thermal turbulence is LLT produced by dry convection in the boundary layer. Solar radiation heats the ground generating convection at the bottom of the boundary layer. During the morning and early afternoon, the convection intensifies and deepens. It reaches a maximum in the afternoon, and then gradually dies out as the earth’s surface cools. In contrast, where cool air moves over a warm surface, thermal turbulence can occur any time, day or night. Thermals are the basic elements of thermal turbulence and are an important source of LLT. They develop just above the ground because of uneven heating. Patterns of rising bubbles of warm air are initially somewhat chaotic, but soon take on distinct patterns. Thermal plumes, narrow curtains of rising air, and dust devils are common close to the ground, especially when the ground is very hot. All of these are LLT sources.
Turbulence in Fronts
: Fronts produce moderate or greater turbulence. In the boundary layer fast-moving cold fronts are usually steeper than at higher levels and updrafts may reach 1000 f.p.m in a narrow zone just ahead of the front. The intensity of the turbulence depends on the strength and speed of those fronts and any associated convection.
: Wake turbulence is created by an aircraft in flight and is considered as a form of mechanical turbulence. However, rather than the air blowing past an obstacle, the obstacle (in this case the wing of the aircraft) is moving through the air. The result is still the same; a turbulent wake is produced behind the obstacle. The term wake turbulence is applied to the vortices that form behind and aircraft that is generating lift.
Turbulence in and Near Thunderstorms (TNT):
TNT is that turbulence that occurs within developing convective clouds and thunderstorms, in the vicinity of thunderstorm tops and wakes, in downbursts, and in gust fronts. Turbulence within the thunderstorm cloud boundaries is caused by the strong updrafts and downdrafts. The most frequent and, typically, the most intense TNT is found within the cloud.
Clear-Air Turbulence (CAT)
: CAT is that turbulence which occurs in the free atmosphere away from any visible convective activity. CAT includes high level frontal and jet stream turbulence, typically above 15,000 feet MSL.
Mountain Wave Turbulence (MWT)
: MWT is that turbulence produced in connection with mountain lee waves. Wave action occurs throughout the depth of the lee wave system, but the worst turbulence occurs mainly in two well-defined layers: near the tropopause in the lee wave region and throughout the lower turbulent zone. Lee wave region: Lee waves are more often smooth than turbulent, but if turbulence does occur in the lee wave region, it is most likely to occur within 5,000 feet of the tropopause. This happens because the winds reach maximum speeds near the tropopause, with vertical shears above and below that level. Mountain wave activity strengthens the shear, promoting the development of shearing-gravity waves, especially near stable layers. Lower turbulent zone: The lower turbulent zone is the boundary layer in the lee wave system. Strong winds and wind shears produce widespread turbulence there. In the typical case the worst turbulence occurs along the lee slopes of the mountain, below the first lee wave trough, and in the rotor.
(Weather) Explain how a microburst is created (starting from the creation of the thunderstorm) and then explain the dangers a microburst represents to aircraft in flight and how a crew can detect the presence of a microburst.
: A downburst is a strong downdraft which includes an outburst of potentially damaging winds on or near the ground. If the diameter of the downburst is less than 2.5 miles, it is called a microburst. Creation of the thunderstorm: The basic component of any thunderstorm is the cell. In the initial stages, this is the updraft region of the growing thunderstorm. Later in the growing thunderstorm development, it includes the precipitation-induced downdraft. A thunderstorm may exist as a single-cell, multi-cell, or super cell storm.
The cumulus stage is the initial stage of thunderstorm development. This is when the updraft reaches the condensation point in the atmosphere and begins to form the cumulus cloud. During this stage, cumulus clouds can expand both vertically and laterally. In a short time, the clouds can reach 8 to 10 thousand meters in height, or around 30,000 feet. Cumulus clouds may also merge together during this vertical development, creating a single cloud that can cover an area of 5 to 10 miles.
- Mature Stage: The mature stage begins when the first drop of precipitation from the cumulus clouds reaches the ground. Lightning and thunder begin as the thunderstorm cell grows to about 5-10 miles in diameter.
- The circulation of the thunderstorm cell is well organized in this stage. The relatively warm updraft and the cool, precipitation induces downdraft exist side by side. The downdraft reaches its greatest velocity below the cloud base. While the updraft reaches its maximum speed near the equilibrium level in the upper part of the cumulonimbus cloud.
- The cumulonimbus cloud which is characteristic of this stage is easily identified by the appearance of its top. The highest portion of the cloud develops a cirriform appearance because of the very cold temperatures and the strong stability of the stratosphere. Vertical motions are dampened and the cloud spreads out horizontally, finally forming the well-know anvil shape, which points in the direction of the winds at the top of the thunderstorm. The beginning of the mature stage of the air mass thunderstorm cell is usually indicated by the arrival of precipitation and wing gusts at the ground. If the precipitation-induced downdraft is exceptionally strong and small, it is classified as a microburst, producing dangerous wind shear conditions on landing and take-off.
Precipitation and down drafts spread throughout the lower levels of the thunderstorm cell, cutting off the updraft. Since the source of energy for thunderstorm growth is the supply of heat and moisture from the surface layer, the cut-off of the updraft spells the end of the storm. With no source of moisture, the precipitation decreases and the entire thunderstorm cloud takes on a stratiform appearance, gradually dissipating.
- Dangers of a Microburst: The down drafts and gusty winds produce flight hazards and turbulence in the form of dangerous wind shear and low level wind shear (LLWS) conditions on landing and take off.
- An aircraft entering a microburst will encounter strong headwinds, followed by strong tailwinds, as it flies from one side of the microburst to the other. If the pilot compensates for the headwind (to decrease lift) a bit too much, then the aircraft will lose lift in the tailwind and quickly strike the ground.
- Both above and below the cloud base, wind and rain will often converge around the descending current of air, in a sense feeding into it. Another indicator of a downdraft is the rapid descent of a precipitation core.
(Weather) List the types of Jet Streams and explain what they are, where they are and how they affect weather systems in the middle latitudes.
- Types of Jet Streams :
- • The two major jet streams are positioned in the polar regions of each hemisphere. In the northern hemisphere jet streams are positioned between the latitudes of 30°N and 70°N.
- • The minor ones, known as sub-tropical jet streams are found between the latitudes of 20°N and 50°N. These are nearer to the equator.
- • “Equatorial Easterly Jet” occurs specifically in the northern hemisphere during summer. They play a major role in the formation of the south-west monsoons in south Asia.
- • Low-level Jet is found in the Great Plains which is formed as result of the Tibetan plateau getting heated and anticyclogenesis.
- Properties: Clear air turbulence or CAT is a phenomenon which is linked with jet streams. It is strongest towards the colder side of the jet stream.
The changing of the normal location of upper-level jet streams can be anticipated during phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which leads to consequences precipitation-wise and temperature-wise across North America, affects tropical cyclone development across the eastern Pacific and Atlantic basins. Combined with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, ENSO can also impact cold season rainfall in Europe. Changes in ENSO also change the location of the jet stream over South America, which partially affects precipitation distribution over the continent.
is an important aspect of weather phenomenon and it can be described as a current of rapidly flowing air which can be found in the higher levels of the atmosphere.
(Weather) Explain the ways in which water changes state (ice to water, water to steam, etc) and what happens to the latent heat of that water. Then expand upon how this leads to the formation of thunderstorms.
The three states that water can take in the normal range of atmospheric temperature and pressure are water vapor, water and ice. Water vapor is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas in which the molecules are free to move about, as in any gas. In the liquid state (water), molecules are restricted in their movements in comparison to water vapor at the same temperature. As a solid (ice), the molecular structure is even more rigid, and the freedom of movement is greatly restricte.
- The following refer to water transferring to higher states of energy: Melting (ice to water), evaporation (water to vapor) and sublimation (ice directly to vapor).
- Water transferring to lower state of energy: condensation (vapor to water), freezing (water to ice) and Deposition (vapor directly to ice).
The amount of heat energy that is absorbed or release when water changes from one state to another is called Latent heat
. It is absorbed and “hidden”(not measurable as a temperature change) in water molecules in the higher energy states and released as sensible heat (heat that can be felt and measured) when the molecules pass to lower energy states.
- Formation of Thunderstorms:
- The three requirements for any cloud formation are: water vapor, condensation nuclei and cooling. Their development requires the presence of water vapor and conditions that will lead to a change of state from vapor to water droplets or ice crystals. They are more likely to form in air with high relative humidity. Condensation nuclei are microscopic particles, such as dust and salt, that provides surfaces on which water vapor undergoes condensation to form water droplets or deposition to form ice crystals. If air is not already saturated, either more water vapor must be added to bring it to saturation or it must be cooled in order to form a cloud. When air becomes saturated, further cooling results in a change of state and release of latent heat. This is particularly important when an air parcel is rising and cooling adiabatically. The additional heat can cause important changes in stability.
- Two basic requirements must be met for the formation of thunderstorms: air must have large instability and there must be a source of initial lift. The strongest thunderstorms develop with an unstable moist surface layer that is capped by a dry layer aloft. When the surface layer is lifted a sufficient distance, strong convection occurs. Initial lift is the minimum amount of vertical displacement necessary to release the instability. It follows that thunderstorms are favored in geographical areas that are close to moisture sources and sources of lift. Severe thunderstorms have stricter requirements that include not only great instability, but also a unique wind shear that provides the thunderstorm with the tilt and rotation needed to produce supercells.
(Management) State the purpose of Reliever Airports? International airports have a classification system that is centered primarily around their function and the services they provide to international traffic. State and describe each of the three types of international airports. In your description, provide at least one example of each type of an international airport.
The purpose of reliever airports are to relieve congestion of general aviation traffic from primary airports.
They are essentially large general-aviation airports located in metropolitan areas that serve to offload small aircraft traffic from hub airports in the region. They account for 10% of AIP-funded airports.
- 3 types of International Airports:
- a) Landing Rights Airport (LRA) – Designated as such by the Federal Inspection Services (FIS). Largest international airports serving the largest volume of international traffic (JFK, IAH, LAX, MIA, SFO). Inbound int’l flights must obtain prior permission to land, and must provide customs w/ advance notice of arrivals (ADCUS).
- b) Airport of Entry (AOE): designated by the FIS. Open for processing of int’l flights and passengers w/o permission. They generally enjoy considerable volumes of int’l pax traffic so prior notification is advisable. (HOU, DAL, LGA).
- c) ICAO Designated Int’l Apt: Designated as such by article 68 of the convention on int’l civil aviation as airports serving int’l operations. It is any airport designated by an ICAO Contracting State in whose territory it is situated as an airport of entry and departure for international air traffic, where the formalities incident to customs, immigration, public health, agricultural quarantine and similar procedures are carried out.
(Management) Whereas the FAA provides regulatory oversight for commercial service airports in the U.S., the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) sets standards for other airports around the world. With the aid two tables that state aerodrome code, runway length, wing span and wheel span, describe each of the different codes or types of airports stipulated in Technical Specifications for Planning, Design and Operation of Aerodromes.
Refer to: Aerodrome Reference Field Length & 2nd Code Element: Wing Span and Outer Main Gear Wheel Span Charts.
(Management) Significant growth in aviation over the preceding half century has led to the development of large airports with complex facilities and systems that are used to provide air transportation services to millions of passengers each year. Scholars and practitioners contend that the use of Airport Master Plans and the airport master planning process have been critical to the growth of aviation and the development of large airports. With the aid of a table, state the three operational types of runways and distinguish between each of the three operational types of runways in the areas of (i) navigational aids (ii) runway marking (iii) taxiway lighting and (iv) runway lighting.
Refer to chart in actual study guide.
Rwy Type- Navaids- Rwy Markings- Twy Lighting- Rwy Lighting
Visual Approach- VASI, PAPI, VFR Ops- Rwy Designator, Rwy C/L, Hold Lines- LITL- LIRL
Non-Precsion Instrument Approach- Instrument Procedures with horizontal guidance- Threshold Markings, Fixed Distance Marker- MITL- MIRL
Precision Instrument Approach- Instrument Approaches with ILS, MLS, PAR, GPS- TDZ Markings, Side Strips- MITL- HIRL
(Management) Whereas the FAA has 22 different runway layouts, these different layouts can be classified under four basic runway configurations. State and describe each of the four basic runway configurations. With respect to aircraft parking and access to gate areas, state and describe each of the five main operational and structural design configurations used in the construction of airport terminal buildings.
Simplest configuration, allows up to 99 operations per hour in VFR weather and 42-53 ops/hr in IFR weather, ideal for single and light twin engine a/c.
- Parallel Runway: The four types of parallel runways are: Close: 2 runways less than 3,500’ apart.
- Intermediate: parallels are 3,500’ to 4,999’ apart
- Far: parallels are 5,000’ or more apart.
- Dual Lane Parallel Runways: consist of two sets of close parallel runways that are 5,000’ + apart.
- Parallel runways are generally found on modern airports constructed in the ADAP and PGP(Planning Grants Program) eras. They handle the highest volume of aircraft operations in both IFR and VFR weather conditions.
Two or more runways which cross each other. Used when strong surface winds blow from more than one direction in a year and additional land for airport expansion is constrained. Capacity depends on the location of the point of intersection, wind direction and runway use.
Open V Runway
: Diverge into different directions and do not intersect. They are useful in no wind conditions when operations are away from the V. Open V runways effectively become 1 runway when strong surface winds blow in one direction. Hourly capacity is also effectively reduced to 50% when operations are toward the V.
- Terminal Building Design Concepts (5):
- Simple Terminal: Consists of a single common passenger services building with direct access through exits or “gates” to the aircraft parking apron. Grade level building, No connectors. Ideal for general aviation airports with low passenger volume.
- Linear (Curvilinear) Terminal: A quasi extension of the simple terminal concept with connectors. Passenger services may be segregated by levels. Aircraft gate positions are aligned along the airside face of the terminal building and are joined by connectors to the boarding areas of the terminal.
- Satellite Terminal: Consists of a building surrounded by aircraft gate positions that is structurally separate from the central terminal structure and is usually reached by grade level, underground or an elevated connecting structure in the form of a concourse. Aircraft gate positions are normally aligned in a radial or parallel fashion around the satellite.
- Pier (Finger) Terminal: Designed to provide interface with aircraft in gate positions along concourses, piers or finger like structures extending from the main terminal area. Concourses are typically connected to parked aircraft by jetways or loading bridges. Passenger services are segregated by building levels.
- Transporter (remote, island) Terminal: The main terminal building is connected by vehicular transportation to remotely parked aircraft at an island boarding facility or gate complex. Transportation to parked aircraft may be provided by mobile lounges or fixed guideway system.
(Air Tran) The federal government has enacted laws and promulgated regulations addressing the provision of air transportation services to what are called by Congress “essential air service communities”.
Please explain what is meant by “essential air service communities”. What is the federal government’s rationale for addressing air transportation services to such communities? Give two examples of the techniques the federal government uses to encourage airlines to provide air service to such communities.
- Essential Air Service Communities: are small communities in the United States, which, prior to deregulation, were served by certificated airlines and maintained commercial service.
- Its aim is to maintain a minimal level of scheduled air service to these communities that otherwise would not be profitable.
- Ex of Techniques:
- 1. Governmental subsidies for service
- 2. Specifying a hub through which the community is linked to the national network
(Air Tran) Virtually every major airline uses a flight operations scheduling model known commonly as the “hub & spoke” system. In some situations, this system is so successful as to be deemed a “fortress hub”.
Please describe the basic operations pattern of the “hub & spoke” system. Please explain the “fortress hub” concept and what makes it so. Provide three examples of the positive aspects of the “hub & spoke” system (the pro’s if you will). Provide three examples of the negative aspects of the “hub & spoke” system (the con’s if you will).
- The Hub-and-Spoke model: An airline routes all of its traffic through one central hub or hubs; Dallas and Detroit, for example. Almost all of the airline's aircraft flies on spokes between destinations and the hub, with very few direct flights between other destinations. Routing all the traffic through the hub actually makes the overall system more efficient.
- Fortress Hub: is an airport where a single airline's share of flights is at or above the monopoly standard of 70 percent of flights in and out of the hub. It is an airport where the dominant airline saturates the market, limits competition, and keeps fares high.
- Pros: 1. Efficiency in scheduling
- 2. Max the # of pax
- 3. More cities served
- 4. Fortress Hub limits competition
- Cons:1. Travel time increases
- 2. Costs more
- 3. Problems at a hub affect the whole system
(Air Tran) Airlines operate in an economic environment where high fixed costs and low marginal costs are considered the norm. These two factors are so ubiquitous as to be accepted as a given when formulating an airline’s business plan.
Please define both “high fixed costs” and “low marginal costs” as they relate to the airline industry. Then explain what effect these conditions have on an airline’s ticket pricing strategy. Also, as it relates to an airline’s ticket pricing strategy, please explain the inverse relationship between ticket price and sales. Finally, a poorly formulated ticket pricing strategy can result in a condition known as spill; describe what “spill” means to the airlines.
- High Fixed Costs means that the more passengers on board (the higher the load factor) the lower the unit cost to fly each passenger (low marginal cost).
- Low Marginal Cost means each additional passenger brings little added cost to the fixed cost, which allows for a lower fare basis as load factor increases, Revenue Passenger Load Factor.
- The inverse relationship between ticket prices and sales means that ticket sales will go up as the price goes down, and vice versa.
- To an airline, “spill” is pax demand turned away. This is particularly harmful because those paying pax will be less likely to fly that airline again.
(Air Tran) Airlines are profit driven businesses. Yield management is the series of calculations and techniques airlines use to determine profitability. Yield management is applied to the entire route system on an annual basis as well as to an individual flight to a specific destination on a specific day at a specific time, and to all the operations in between. Many quantifiable factors contribute to determining yield. Each of these factors has a particular name in the jargon of the industry. You can demonstrate your understanding of the yield management concept by answering the following questions:
a) the ratio of available seat miles (ASM) to revenue seat miles (RSM) is known as what?
b) your answer to a) above is used by the airlines to quantify the load factor on each flight and is usually expressed as a percentage; using the data provided, calculate the ASM and the RPLF for the hypothetical flight.
1) a B-737 with 150 seats and 8 cargo containers
2) 500 route miles flown
3) 110 revenue seats sold
c) What effect does a higher percentage load factor tend to have on an airline’s unit cost for that particular flight?
d) What effect does your answer to c) above tend to have on airfares for that flight?
a) Revenue Passenger Load Factor
- b) ASM: 150 x 500 = 75000
- RPLF: (500 x 110) / 75000 = 73.3%
c) high % = lower unit cost
d) it lowers them
(ATC) Describe what is meant by the National Airspace System (NAS)?
- The National Airspace System (NAS) consists of a complex collection of facilities, systems, equipment, procedures, airports, aircraft & thousands of personnel to provide a safe and efficient flying environment. It enables safe and expeditious air travel in the United States and over large portions of the world's oceans.
- The NAS requires 17,000 air traffic controllers, 4,500 aviation safety inspectors, and 5,800 technicians to operate and maintain services. It has more than 19,000 airports, 690 air traffic control facilities. There are 21 Centers and 1 Command Center. Over 45,000 FAA employees. There are 6 classes of airspaces and 11 special use airspaces in the NAS. In addition, there are over 36,000 pieces of equipment, ranging from radar systems to communication relay stations.
- On average, about 50,000 flights use NAS services each day.
(ATC) There are 6 Airspace Classes in the National Airspace Sysrem, A, B, C, D, E and G. Briefly describe each, give its lateral and vertical limits. and describe where you would find it.
Class A: Generally, that airspace from 18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600, including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska. Clearance is required to enter.
Class B: Generally, that airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports in terms of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. The configuration of each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers (some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace. Has a mode C veil 30 nm out from the center of the airspace. Clearance is required to enter.
Class C: Generally, that airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower, are serviced by a radar approach control, and that have a certain number of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. Although the configuration of each Class C airspace area is individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of a 5 NM radius core surface area that extends from the surface up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation, and a 10 NM radius shelf area that extends no lower than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation.
Class D: Generally, that airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower.
Class E: (Everyone Airspace) Generally, if the airspace is not Class A, B, C, or D, and it is controlled airspace, it is Class E airspace.
Class G: Class G airspace (uncontrolled) is that portion of airspace that has not been designated as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace.
(ATC) Explain the functions of and differences between primary radar and secondary radar.
- Primary: The orientation of the radar antenna provides the bearing of the aircraft from the ground station, and the time taken for the pulse to reach the target and return provides a measure of the distance of the target from the ground station. The bearing and distance of the target can then be converted into a ground position for display to the Air Traffic Controller.
- Advantage: of Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) is that it operates totally independently of the target aircraft - that is, no action from the aircraft is required for it to provide a radar return.
- Disadvantages of PSR are that, firstly, enormous amounts of power must be radiated to ensure returns from the target. This is especially true if long range is desired. Secondly, because of the small amount of energy returned at the receiver, returns may be easily disrupted due to such factors as changes of target attitude or signal attenuation due to heavy rain. This may cause the displayed target to 'fade'. Thirdly, correlation of a particular radar return with a particular aircraft requires an identification process.
- Secondary: SSR or Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System, relies on a piece of equipment aboard the aircraft known as a 'transponder'.
- The transponder is a radio receiver and transmitter operating on the radar frequency. The target aircraft's transponder responds to interrogation by the ground station by transmitting a coded reply signal. The great advantages of SSR are three: (1) because the reply signal is transmitted from the aircraft it is much stronger when received at the ground station, thus giving the possibility of much greater range and reducing the problems of signal attenuation; (2) the transmitting power required of the ground station for a given range is much reduced, thus providing considerable economy; (3) because the signals in each direction are electronically coded the possibility is offered to transmit additional information between the two stations.
(ATC) Describe the function and purpose of the ATCSCC (Air Traffic Control System Command Center).
- The Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATSCC) balances air traffic demand with system capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). The Command Center is committed to managing the NAS in a safe, efficient, and cohesive manner. The Command Center Traffic Management Specialists plan and regulate the flow of air traffic to minimize delays and congestions while maximizing the overall operation of the NAS.
- Along with direct communication with its partners, the use of advanced automation tools enables the Command Center to manage the NAS efficiently and cohesively. These partners include: ARTCCs, TRACONs, ATCTs.
(ATC) Describe the concept of “NEXTGEN”.
NextGen or Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) is the name given to the project which is set to completely overhaul the United States national airspace system (NAS). The goal of NextGen is to increase the capacity of the NAS, while increasing efficiency and safety through the use of leading edge technology. This includes the use of satellites for communication, implementation of ADS-B, GPS, WAAS, LAAS, etc. It will take a lot of time and money to implement as the cost has soared and it is behind schedule. The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) is developing it. They also created a Provincial Data Network (PDN) for it.
(Human Factors) What are the three basic tenets with respect to human error? How are pilot errors different from any other human error? What fallacies are implied by use of the term “pilot error”? What are the two prongs of the two-pronged attack on human errors? Which of the two prongs seems to have the most relevance in terms of system design? How does the classification of errors as random, systematic or sporadic fit into the attack on minimizing the occurrence of errors?
3 Basic Tenets:
Origins of error can be different; anyone can and will make errors; consequences of similar errors can be different.
Pilot errors are, in principle, no different from those made by anyone else.
The term "Pilot Error" is implying
that the pilot is solely at fault when that may not be the case. The term pilot error brings closure.
- 2 Prongs of 2-Pronged attack: minimizing the occurence of errors (probability); reducing the consequences of errors (severity).
- Reducing the consequences has the most relevance in terms of system design.
- Classification of Errors:
- Random: Has a variety of origins. Personnel selection, training, checking and supervision may all play a role in the reduction of this error.
- Systematic: usually caused by only one or two factors normally easier to correct once a proper analysis is made. A good operator feedback system will help.
- Sporadic: Difficult to predict or reduce and usually resistant to correction through training or indoctrination.
(Human Factors) When does hypoxia occur? What are the symptoms of hypoxia? Name and describe each of the types of hypoxia.
- Hypoxia, which is a lack of sufficient oxygen needed by the body, is a negative effect of traveling at high altitudes without supplemental oxygen available.
- Symptoms of hypoxia include: personality changes, impaired thinking or judgment, euphoria, drowsiness, headache, numbness, cyanosis (blue tint to skin), loss of night vision, fast breathing, and a loss of color vision.
- Types of Hypoxia:
- Hypoxic Hypoxia – insufficient O2 available to the lungs. (reduced partial pressure, drowning, blocked airway).
- Hypemic Hypoxia – the blood is not able to take up and transport a sufficient amount of O2 to the cells in the body. Result of O2 deficiency in the blood. May be because there is not enough blood (severe bleeding), or certain blood diseases like anemia, carbon monoxide poisoning.
- Stagnant Hypoxia – the O2 rich blood is not flowing. (ex: arm or leg falling asleep due to lack of blood flow) Can also result from shock, the heart failing to pump blood efficiently, or a constricted artery. Can occur when pulling excessive positive G’s, and cold temperature situations.
- Histotoxic Hypoxia – inability of the cells to effectively use O2. Impairment of cellular respiration that can be caused by alcohol and other drugs (poison).
(Human Factors) Name and describe the stages of hypoxia. What factors improve ones ability to tolerate to hypoxia?
- The four stages are Indifferent, Compensatory, Disturbance, and Critical Stage.
- Indifferent stage is 0-10,000 ft; no real impairment other than possible fatigue.
- Compensatory stage is 10,000-15,000 ft; impairment becomes apparent after a time and more difficulty accomplishing complex tasks.
- Disturbance stage is 15,000-20,000 ft; the body no longer can offer protection against hypoxia and normal symptoms begin.
- Critical stage is 20,000 ft or higher; rapid decrease in operational capabilities with a few minutes conscious at most.
Factors to improve the ability to tolerate hypoxia: flying at lower altitudes, using oxygen, limit caffeine, limit alcohol consumption, don’t be anemic, stop smoking!
(Human Factors) What is a leader? What are the tasks of the effective leader? In what ways do all members of a group contribute to the effective leadership of the group? What are the characteristics of a leader?
- A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thoughts of others. The tasks of an effective leader are as follows:
- 1. Motivating the members of a group
- 2. Modifying habits and behavior by reinforcement
- 3. Demonstration of the desired goals and behaviors
- 4. Attending to personal relationships, resolve disputes and encourage harmony
- 5. The leader has a managerial role
All the members of a group contribute to the effective leadership by contributing information, ideas and providing support.
Characteristics of a leader include technical skills, capacities (judgment), demonstrated achievement and responsibilities, and participates and cooperates with others and understand group needs.
(Flight Dyn) What is lift and how is it developed over a typical airfoil? Be sure to address both applicable theorems, and how each contributes to the development of lift. Additionally, compare and contrast symmetrical and cambered airfoils and how the development of lift varies over each one. Be sure to address the concepts of center of pressure and aerodynamic center, as well as any pitching moments occurring on the airfoils.
Lift is the component of the aerodynamic force this is perpendicular to the relative wind. 25% of lift is developed by Newton’s 3rd Law. The law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In this case, the action is the airflow leaving the wing and striking the static air aft of the airfoil, deflecting downward. When this occurs, the static air cause a equal and opposite reaction by causing an upward force on the airfoil, contributing to lift. The other 75% of lift comes from static pressure differentials. Both the continuity equation and Bernoulli’s theorem play a role. The continuity equation states that the mass of airflow will remain constant in a system. When air is moved over an airfoil, the mass of air must remain the same from the leading to trailing edge. Since the distance over the upper surface is longer than over the bottom, the velocity of the air must increase over the top. The higher velocity on top of the airfoil causes a lower pressure. Bernouli’s equation states that total pressure in a system remains constant. The airflow over the top of the wing moves faster than below. The airflow below the wing moves slower and due to Bernoulli, would cause a higher static pressure, because total pressure in a system remains constant. The higher static pressure below the wing causes an upward force which contributes to lift. Aerodynamic force is the resultant of all static pressures acting on an airfoil in an airflow multiplied by the planform area that is affected by the pressure. Center of pressure is the point on the chordline where the AF acts. Aerodynamic force is the point on the chordline where the pitching moments are constant with changing AOA. The difference between a symmetrical and cambered airfoil is that a symmetrical airfoil will produce no lift at zero angle of attack, while a cambered would have to be placed at a negative AOA to produce no lift. The line of action of the upper and lower surfaces will always be opposite of one another in a symmetrical, while they won’t be in a cambered. In a cambered aircraft, the CP shifts forward as you increase AOA, and aft as you decrease AOA, where as a symmetrical airfoil has no pitching moments. The aerodynamic center is constant for each airfoil, and is 25% of the chord for subsonic and 50%for supersonic, but on a symmetrical airfoil, the AC the same as the CP. The pitching moments are constant at the aerodynamic center. Also, the chord and mean chamber line are the same in a sym airfoil where they are different in a cambered one.
(Flight Dyn) The nature of the boundary layer determines the maximum lift coefficient and stalling characteristics of an airfoil. Define stall and state what the boundary layer is. Name and describe/define the two forces that act on the airflow in the boundary layer and how the two forces contribute to the development of stall. What is a stall characterized by and which is the most common type of stall? How does the planform of the wing affect how and where the stall will occur? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each planform type?
- A stall is airflow separation of the boundary layer from a lifting surface. The layer of air from the surface of the airfoil to the point where there is no measurable air velocity is known as the boundary layer.
- Friction forces and adverse pressure gradient are the two types of forces acting on an airfoil. The friction forces are between the surface of the airfoil & the air particles, and there is friciton between the particles themselves. Both of these tend to reduce the relative velocity to zero. The air is slowed by the adverse pressure gradient. This creates a stagnated region close to the surface. Airflow from outside the boundary layer will overrun the point of stagnation and a flow reversal results, causing a stall.
- A stall is characterized by reduction in lift and rapid increase in drag. The most common type of stall is the slow speed, high AoA stall. The planform of the wing will affect how and where the stall occurs. If the wings are straight out, the stall will move from the wing root to the wing tip. If the wings are swept back, the stall will start at the tips, and move inward. Straight wings may stall at a lower AOA, but will have a buffet warning. Swept wings stall at a higher AOA, but receive no such warning.
(Flight Dyn) What is drag and how does it contribute to the overall aerodynamic effectiveness of an aircraft? Name and completely define the two types of drag that occur on subsonic airfoils. Be sure to thoroughly explain how the two types are produced, and what factors are under the control of either the designer or the operator to reduce the presence of drag on an aircraft.
- Drag is the force opposite to thrust and parallel to the relative wind. It makes the aircraft less efficient.
- Induced and parasite drag are the two types of drag on subsonic airfoils.
- Induced drag is caused by the wingtip vortices which are formed by higher pressure air beneath the wing moving into the lower pressure air above the wing. The vortices cause the airflow behind the wing to be pushed downward, which is called downwash. Downwash causes the RW behind the wing to be deflected downward at a downwash angle. The RW at the AC is influenced by the downwash and it is deflected downward by one-half of the downwash angle. The lift vector is tilted backward by the induced AOA which is numerically equal to one-half of the downwash angle. The rearward component of the tilted lift vector is induced drag. The main ways to reduce it are by the use of winglets, or when entering ground effect, it is dramatically reduced or eliminated. Increasing airspeed also will decrease the amount of the induced drag.
- There are 5 types of Parasite Drag: skin friction, form, interference, leakage, and profile drag. Skin-friction drag is caused by components such as bolts and rivets, which come in contact with the airflow. This is reduced by smoothing and cleaning the aircraft surface area to produce laminar air flow. Form drag is caused by the shape or form of the aircraft. Streamlining will reduce it. Interference drag is caused by interference of boundary layers from different parts of the airplane. Smooth fairings at surface junctions will reduce it. Leakage drag is caused by differential pressures inside and outside of the aircraft. It is reduced by insulating air gaps in the aircraft. Profile drag is caused by the movement of helicopter rotors. Operators can reduce parasite drag by decreasing airspeed as well.
(Flight Dyn) Lateral and directional stability are interrelated. Explain what each is and how one contributes to the other. Thoroughly explain the contribution of the wings and tail section to both types of stability. Discuss the difference between static and dynamic stability, and name, describe and discuss the three conditions which result from coupled dynamic effects of lateral and directional stability.
- Lateral Stability: behavior of an airplane in roll.
- Directional Stability: behavior of an airplane in yaw.
- They contribute to each other in two ways: 1) Yaw due to roll – the lifted wing has increased induced drag that slows it down and causes a yaw in the direction of the lifted wing. 2) Roll due to yaw – The wing moved forward by yaw has increased airspeed that creates more lift and that lift causes a rolling movement.
- Static Stability is the INITIAL tendency of an aircraft to return to original position after a disturbance. Dynamic Stability is the movement of the aircraft with respect to time.
- The three conditions resulting from coupled dynamic effects of lateral and directional stability are: 1) Spiral Divergence: static directional stability is greater when compared to the static lateral stability (excess roll). 2) Directional Divergence: static directional stability is low when compared to static lateral stability, (excess yaw). 3) Dutch Roll: directional lateral oscillations.
(Law) The 1944 Chicago Convention established the current rules and practices of international aviation. Included in that treaty are the popularly named “five freedoms” of international air transportation. This is a three part question. As you answer the second question, please recall that the first three freedoms are commonly available to any nation that is a party to the treaty without overly burdensome arrangements; the two remaining freedoms are not so.
a) Please list the five freedoms (you may do so in your own words).
b) How are freedoms 4 & 5 usually put into force and effect? Describe the implementing document and give at least three examples of the types of provisions it might contain.
c) When two nations, or groups of nations such as the EU and the U.S., agree to a more liberalized form of mutual air service, what is that called? In a sentence or two, describe the practical effect of such an arrangement.
- a) 5 Freedoms:
- 1. To fly across the territory of either states without landing.
- 2. To land in either state for non-traffic purposes, e.g. refueling without boarding or deplaning passengers.
- 3. To land in the territory of the first state and deplane passengers coming from the home state of the airline.
- 4. To land in the territory of the first state and board passengers traveling to the home state of the airline.
- 5. To land in the territory of the first state and board passengers traveling on to a third state where the passengers deplane, e.g. a scheduled flight from the U.S. to France could pick up traffic in England and take all to France (sometimes termed beyond rights).
c) Open Skies Agreement
- b) In order for the freedoms to be operative between nations, the signatory countries must have a bilateral agreement (contract) that allow one another to operate freely.
- Bilateral Agreement: -Secure mutual air traffic rights between 2 nations
- -Their terms are as varied as the 2 nations choose to make them
- -Typically contain at least two of the following points:
- 1) exchange of air service rights by designated carriers
- 2) pledge equal treatment to each others airlines
- 3) agree upon customs and immigration rules and border entry
– This is where there are no restrictions on international route rights; number of designated airlines; capacity; frequencies; or types of aircraft. So any airline can run any routes it wants to within the countries that are part of the agreement.
(Law) If you should receive a Notice of Proposed Certificate Action from the FAA, there are six generally accepted courses of action you may take as an initial response. One of those six, just one, is commonly recognized as the most prudent course when first answering the FAA’s allegations.
Please name that one course of action that is deemed most beneficial to the Respondent. Also, there are three principle benefits derived from choosing that course. Please list them and describe why each one benefit’s the Respondent.
- Most important – request order entry immediately so as to begin appeal process, deny allegations
- 3 benefits:
- 1. Buys time: more time to prove innocence.
- 2. May get them waived: if you admit anything, then you can not appeal it.
- 3. Human nature says that they will be less likely to be harsh after they get to know you.
(Law) The corporation is by far the most common form of business structure in the U.S. Corporations hold a rather unique status in our legal system. This status has evolved from both practice in the business community and especially from the law itself, which has endowed the corporation with certain characteristics that distinguish it from other types of businesses.
a) Please list the 6 characteristics of a corporation.
b) Describe the rights and powers inherent in a corporation as a result of its foundation in those 6 characteristics.
- a) 1. legal entity distinct of owners
- 2. creation of the state
- 3. stock freely transferable
- 4. limited owner liability
- 5. perpetuity of existence
- 6. centralized management
b) To sue and be sued, to have a seal, make and execute contracts and agreements, get aid of grants from the government, people won't be liable for dept if it fails, get a identification # (name), they have right and responsibilities like actual people.
(Law) In order to fly passengers for hire in the U.S., an airline must obtain from the U.S. Department of Transportation a document informally known as a “401 certificate”. One of the conditions of receiving such a certificate is compliance with applicable FAA FAR’s. This is a three part question.
A)Wwhat is the official name of the 401 certificate?
B) Cite 3 examples of the specific kinds of things a 401 certificate imposes on an airline to explain how the law determines what a ‘reasonable standard’ means. Next, please list the four essential elements that are necessary to prove negligence. Finally, state the four common defenses available to contest a plaintiff’s negligence action.
C) In broad, general terms, describe the purpose and effect of a 401 for an airline
A) 401 Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity.
b) The purpose is to make sure that all the rules and regulations are being followed and to make sure it is convenient for the public. It means that the airlines have to have a good reason to fly and have to meet all the requirements. It also help to make sure the airline doesn’t loose a ton.
c) 1. Fitness determination – financial resources, flight equipment, strategy, and past conformity to legal requirements
2. Convenience and Necessity – documents (bi-lateral) is it likely to succeed.
3. Annual review of fitness
4 Essential Elements to Prove Negligence:
1. that there is a duty of care owed to a person;
2. a breach of that duty occurred;
3. there is a reasonably close connection that causes the injury (proximate cause);
4. that injury causes actual damage or loss.
4 Common Defenses for Negligence:
1. Affirmation - assertion that law relieves liability
2. Assumption of Risk - should have known better
3. Comparative Fault - reduces damages plaintiff can recover based on amount he/she contributed to the damage
4. Last Clear Chance Doctrine - plaintiff had opportunity to lessen harm and didn’t
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
(Security) Define aviation security, aviation terrorism, and air piracy. Analyze air piracy with a particular emphasis on the four causal modalities of (i) escape, (ii) extortion, (iii) protest, and (iii) lunacy or mental disturbance.
Aviation Security: Efforts to prevent or mitigate against external threats, actors, and events that aim to destroy, damage or degrade normal operations in aviation.
Aviation terrorism: activities that threaten human life and property in aviation to obtain larger goals.
Air piracy: (hijacking). Unauthorized control of an a/c (through the use or threat of force). Attempted air piracy occurs on the ground.
The reasons for air piracy has changed over the three phases of aviation security. Some have used it as a means of escape. For example; people in communist Cuba have hijacked aircraft and demanded they be flown to the U.S. or other free countries so they can get out. Hijacked aircraft may also be used as a means of leverage and extortion. This was the case in the movie “air force 1” where the hijackers held the aircraft and people inside as hostages until they got what they wanted. Air piracy is used in protest because aviation hijacking get tons of media attention and the aircraft costs a lot of money. There is also the case where people are mentally unstable and hijack or attempt to crash the aircraft for no apparent reason.
(Security) Describe future trends in aviation security with a special emphasis on emerging and state-of-the-art technologies that can enhance the security of passengers and property transported by the commercial air carriers.
Aviation security is getting better with advances in technology. From the screening technologies we have today, all the way up to the Advanced Technologies of tomorrow, the industry can continue to enhance the security of passengers. Some technology trends that are or will be occurring are biometrics, explosive trace detection equipment, and threat image projection.
Emerging State–of–the–Art Technologies in Airport Security
: A lot of research has gone into exploring the use of high-definition x-ray machines to be used in improving the detection of potential threat items in baggage or on the traveler and improve on airline security. The following are the latest technologies in use today:
Advanced Technology (AT)
Advanced Technology in the context of aviation security, refers to a group of advanced x-ray technologies that improve carry-on baggage screening and enhance airline passenger security. ATs provide clear, high-definition x-ray images that improve any security officers' ability to detect potential threat items. Some units employ multiple x-ray angles (views), provide high-definition zoom and/or have automated detection capabilities for further enhanced effectiveness.
- Whole Body Imaging: Passenger imaging is an umbrella term used to describe technologies that visually screen travelers, allowing security officers to more thoroughly detect weapons, explosives and other threat items. There are currently two different types of passenger imaging technology: backscatter and millimeter wave.
- Back Scatter: The technique called “backscatter” X-Ray is based on “the emergence of radiation from a surface of a material through which it entered,” which then allows a highly realistic image to be reconstructed. The registered image is mainly that of the surface of the object/person being imaged. In the case of airline passenger screening, it is the nude form. The image resolution of the technology is high, so details of the human form of airline passengers present privacy challenges.
- Millimeter Wave: Millimeter wave technology is currently being utilized in various government locations across the United States, as well as international aviation and mass transit environments. This system is based on advanced microwave technology that can ‘see’ all objects, not just metallic items, by the use of safe natural energy. It uses millimeter-waves to detect and identify suspicious objects hidden under clothing or to see through cloud and fog, in the same way that the bat uses high-frequency signals to navigate in the dark.
The use of biometrics continues to grow as an important part of a new approach to security. Biometrics is an automated method of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Among the features measured are: fingerprints, hand geometry, handwriting, iris, retinal, vein and voice. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. This kind of technology though not used extensively for the traveling public as of now, is continually being tested at airports all over the world to help control access to important facilities.
Trace Portals/ Explosives Trace Detection (ETD):
Detection of explosives is based on a variety of technologies that focus on either bulk explosives or traces of explosives. Trace portal machines blow puffs of air on a traveler, which it then analyzes for trace amounts of explosives. Even the tiniest amount of explosive is no match for a trace portal. If the portal’s alarm sounds, the passenger and his/her property are subject to additional screening. Once cleared, the passenger is free to continue boarding. Better yet, these great assets to security can be instantly updated through vast information technology networks to stay ahead of any emerging threats.
Explosive Detection System (EDS)
: Through a sophisticated analysis of each checked bag, the EDS machines can quickly determine if a bag contains a potential threat or not. If a weapon or explosive is detected, the machines alert the security officers so they can manage the bag appropriately. In some cases, the alarm is quickly resolved and in others, law enforcement and the bomb squad may be called in.
(Security) The policy governing provision of aviation security for commercial air carriers is centered on a security regimen that may be referred to as a Concentric Approach to Aviation Security. State and describe each of the ten layers of the Concentric Approach to Aviation Security. Discuss your opinion of the effectiveness of the Concentric Approach to Aviation Security.
1. Airport Access Controls (Outer ring): Such technology may include biometric or other technology that ensures only authorized access to secure areas.
2. Federalized Airport Checkpoint Workers: Employees under the direct supervision of FAA civil aviation security agents provide oversight and support at screening checkpoints, assist screeners and supervisors as necessary, help certify screening equipment, and ensure that security is being performed correctly.
3. Explosive/Weapons Detection Systems: These are a group of advanced technologies that improve carry-on baggage screening and enhance airline passenger security. They include high-definition x-ray machines, trace portals / Explosives Trace Detection (ETD), Explosive Detection System (ETS), and bottled liquid scanners.
4. Cargo and Passenger Screening: Standards for screening both passengers and cargo have become much stricter with the introduction of new state- of- the- art technologies of passenger imaging (backscatter and millimeter wave), biometrics, trace portals / Explosives Trace Detection (ETD), Explosive Detection System (ETS), and bottled liquid scanners.
5. Employee Background Checks: Airport screeners and all the employees who work at the airport and for airliners now have to go through required background checks, as per the FAA standards. This ensures that convicted criminals and other of ill repute are not given the chance to compromise on security.
6. Airline Passenger Profiling (CAPPS II): Using the more advanced Computerized Assisted Passenger Screening System (CAPPS II), individuals that may be possible threats are chosen by computer selection and subjected to greater scrutiny and intensive searches of their person and their luggage, including the carry-on and checked bags.
7. Federal Air Marshals: The Federal Air Marshal Service promotes confidence in the nation’s civil aviation system through the effective deployment of Federal Air Marshals (FAMs) to detect, deter, and defeat hostile acts targeting U.S. air carriers, airports, passengers, and crews.
8. Fortified Aircraft Cockpit Doors: After 9/11, the FAA mandated new, heavier, bulletproof doors for airline cockpits across the U.S. commercial air fleet. All commercial airliners now have them installed.
9. Flight Crew Hijack Training: Flight crews are now required to undergo security and hijack procedures to prepare them on how to act in case such as event happens.
10. Armed Flight Crew: One or both of the pilots are now armed and trained to shoot in the very remote chance that a hijacker manages to get through the cockpit door and an air marshal is not on board.
(Security) Name the leading actors in international aviation security and describe their functions with a special emphasis on global air carriers and international airports. How would you improve international aviation security?
- The leading actors in international aviation security are:
- 1. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). 2. The International Air Transport Association (IATA)
- 3. The Airport Council International (ACI)
- 4. Various Regional Bodies, ECAC, FAA
2. The International Air Transport Association (IATA)
- 1. ICAO works to achieve its vision of safe, secure and sustainable development of civil aviation through cooperation amongst its member States. To implement this vision, the Organization has established Strategic Objectives. Among them are:
- Safety - Enhance global civil aviation safety
- Security - Enhance global civil aviation security
- Environmental Protection - Minimize the adverse effect of global civil aviation on the environment
- Efficiency - Enhance the efficiency of aviation operations
- Continuity - Maintain the continuity of aviation operations
- Rule of Law - Strengthen law governing international civil aviation
This organization, which was re-established at the 1944 Chicago Conference on International Air Transport, has as its primary goal to promote the safe, regular and economical air transport for the benefit of the peoples of the world. It also has dual objectives of “facilitation” and “security” in international aviation.
3. The Airport Council International (ACI)
: prime purpose is to advance the interests of airports and to promote professional excellence in airport management and operations. By fostering cooperation amongst airports, world aviation organizations and business partners, ACI seeks to provide the traveling public a safe, secure, efficient and environmentally responsible air transport system.