G&F - Knee Joint

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G&F - Knee Joint
2012-03-27 21:19:26
Knee joint

Gross & Functional (knee)
Show Answers:

  1. T/F - The knee joint is the most frequently injured joint in the body
  2. What is the largest joint in the body?
  3. The knee joint is classified as what kind of joint?
    synovial hinge joint
  4. What are the possible motions of the knee joint?
    • - Flex 125-130
    • - Ext - 0 degrees
  5. What is genu recurvatum?
    beyond 5 degrees of hyperextension
  6. Why isn't the knee joint a true hinge joint?
    It has a rotational component
  7. Is the rotational component of the knee joint a free motion?
    No - it is a accessory motion accompanying flex-ext.
  8. The femur must glide postieriorly on the __________ as it rolls into __________
    tibia; extension
  9. The weight bearing extension of the knee is what kind of action?
    closed chain action
  10. The weight bearing extension of the knee causes the femur to do what?
    spin (rotate medially) on the tibia
  11. The non-weight bearing extension of the knee is what kind of action?
    open chain action
  12. The non-weight bearing extension of the knee causes the tibia to do what?
    rotate laterally on the femur
  13. What is the screw home mechanism?
    • - occurs in the last few degrees of motion to lock the knee
    • - with the knee fully extended an individual can stand for a long period of time w/o using mm
  14. The small amount of rotation of the femur on the tibia, or vice versa, prevents the knee from being what?
    true hinge joint
  15. What is the patellofemoral joint?
    smooth posterior surface of patella glides over the patellar surface of the femur
  16. What are the 2 main functions of the patella?
    • - increasing mechanical advantage of the quadriceps mm
    • - protecting the knee joint
  17. What is the moment arm?
    perpindicular distance b/t the muscle's line ofa ction and the center of the joint (axis)
  18. The action line of the quadriceps muscles is farther away if the patella is placed where?
    b/t the quadriceps, or patellar tendon, and the femur
  19. The muscles in the knee have greater angular force when the moment arm does what?
  20. The moment arm would be shorter and most of the mm force would be a stablizing force directed back into the joint if what was absent?
  21. What is the Q Angle and where is it?
    • - patellofemoral angle
    • - b/t the quadriceps muscle, rectus femoris, and the patellar tendon
  22. How do you determine the Q Angle?
    draw a line from the asis to midpoint of patella and tibtub to the midpoint of the patella
  23. In knee extensions, the Q Angle is within what range?
    13 to 19 degrees
  24. Why is the Q Angle normally greater in females than in males?
    because female pelvis is usually wider
  25. Where does the sesamoid bone form?
    the tendon
  26. What bone is amechanical advantage of lever arm?
    sesamoid bone
  27. What is the knee composed of?
    the distal end of the femur articulating with the proximal end of the tibia
  28. How does the fibula relate to the tibia?
    • - it is lateral to and smaller than the tibia
    • - it is set back from the anterior of the surface of the tibia allowing for larger space for mm attachment
  29. Why isn't the fibula part of the knee joint?
    it doesn't articulate with the femur and has a larger role at the ankle
  30. What is the patella?
    triangular sesamoid bone w/in the quadricep muscle tendon
  31. What is the most posterior tarsal bone?
    calcaneous (heel)
  32. What do the cruciate and collateral ligaments do?
    help hold the knee together
  33. What are cross cruciates?
    these are located w/in the joint capsule and are called intracapsular ligaments
  34. Where are cruciate ligaments situated?
    b/t the medial and lateral condyles
  35. Where is the anterior cruciate ligament?
    it runs from the anterior surface of the tibia (under the patella) to the posterior femur
  36. Cruciates provide stability where?
    sagittal plane
  37. What is the function of the ACL?
    • - keeps the femur from being displaced posteriorly and on the tibia
    • - keeps the tibia fro being displaced anteriorly on the femur
  38. How does the ACL prevent excessive hyperextension of the knee?
    it tightens during extension
  39. When does the ACL keep the tibia from moving anteriorly?
    when the knee is partly flexed
  40. Where is the posterior cruciate ligament located?
    runs from the posterior tibia to the anterior femur
  41. What is the function of the PCL?
    • - keeps the femur from displacing anteriorly on the tibia
    • - keeps the tibia from displacing posteriorly on the femur
  42. When does the PCL tighten?
    during flexion
  43. Which is injured more frequently, the ACL or the PCL?
  44. What ligaments are located on the side of the knee?
    medial collateral liagment & lateral collateral ligament
  45. Collateral ligaments provide stability where?
    frontal plane
  46. Collateral ligaments tighten during what?
  47. Collateral ligaments loosen during what?
  48. What is the MCL also known as?
    tibial collateral ligament
  49. What is the shape of the MCL?
    flat broad ligament
  50. Where does the MCL attach?
    to the medial condyles of the femur and tibia
  51. The fact that fibers of medial meniscus are attached to this ligament contribute to what kind of injury?
    frequent tearing of the medial meniscus during excessive stress to MCL
  52. What is the LCL also known as?
    fibular collateral ligamet
  53. What is the LCL shaped like?
    round cord like ligament
  54. Where does the LCL attach?
    to the lateral condyle of the femur and runs dow to the head of the fibula
  55. The MCL provides medial stability and prevents excessive motion if what occurs?
    a blow to the lateral side of the knee
  56. What does the LCL protect the knee joint from?
    stresses to the medial side of the knee
  57. What are located on the superior surface of the tibia?
    medial and lateral menisci
  58. What are the menisci shaped like?
    2 half moon wedge shaped fibrocartilage disks
  59. what are the menisci designed to do?
    absorb shock
  60. Why are the menisci thicker laterally than medially?
    because the proximal sufaces are concave
  61. The menisci deepen what?
    the relatively flat joint surface of the tibia
  62. Which menisci is torn more frequently?
    medial meniscus
  63. What are the 2 types of end feel at the knee joint?
    • - knee flexion soft
    • - knee extension firm
  64. What is the knee flexion soft?
    • - soft tissue approximation
    • - from mm bellies of thigh and leg touching each other
  65. What is knee extension firm?
    soft tissue stretch due to tensin of the joint capsule and ligaments
  66. How many bursa are located at the knee joint and why?
    13 - to reduce friction
  67. Why are bursa needed in the knee joint?
    many of the tendons around the knee joint have a mostly vertical line of pull against bony areas or other tendons
  68. What is the popliteal space?
    area behind the knee that contains important nerves & blood vessels
  69. What are located in the popliteal space?
    • - tibial, common, & peroneal nerves
    • - politeal artery & vein
  70. where is a good place to measure pulse in the knee?
    popliteal space on the politeal artery/vein
  71. What are the One Joint MM?
    • - vastus lateralis
    • - medialis
    • - intermdius biceps femoris short head
    • - popliteus (unlocks the knee)
  72. What are the Two Joint MM?
    • - rectus femoris
    • - biceps femoris long
    • - semim
    • - semiten
    • - gracilis
    • - sartorius
    • - gastrocnemius
    • - TFL
  73. What is genu valgum (knock knees)?
    distal segements (ankles) are positioned more laterally than normal causing the knees to touch while the ankles are apart
  74. What is genu varum (bowlegs)?
    the ankles are more medially than normal causing the ankles to touch while the knees are far apart
  75. Coxa valgus is often seen with what?
    genu varus
  76. coxa varus is often seen with what?
    genu valgus
  77. What is patellar tendonitis (jumper's knee)?
    tenderness at the patellar tendon caused by overuse stress from jumping
  78. Who often suffer from patellar tendonitis?
    • - bb players
    • - high jumpers
    • - hurdlers
  79. What is osgood schlatter disease?
    overuse injury in adolescents involving traction type epiphysis
  80. What is patellofemoral pain syndrome?
    problem causing diffuse anterior pain resulting from increased Q angle, patella alta, quad weakness or tighness, weakness of hip lateral rotators, and excessive foot pronation
  81. What is terrible triad?
    knee injury caused by a single blow to the knee and involves tears to the ACL, MCL, and medial meniscus
  82. What is miserable malaligament syndrome?
    alignment of the lower extremity involving increased anteversion of the femoral head
  83. What is miserable malaligament syndrome associated with?
    • - genu valgus
    • - pronated flat foot
    • - increased tibial torsion
  84. Diamond shaped is bound superior medially by what?
    semiten - semimem
  85. Diamond shaped is bound laterally by what?
    biceps femoris
  86. Diamond shaped consists of the infeior lat med heads of what?
  87. Pes Anserine (goose's foot) is made up of what?
    • SGT
    • - sartorius
    • - gracilis
    • - semitendinosus