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2012-03-28 05:12:25
Architecture History

Survey of Architectural History II - Test 2 - Part 2
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  1. Casa Bastillo Gaudi. Barcelona, Spain. 1904-06The building looks very remarkable — like everything Gaudí designed, only identifiable as Modernisme or Art Nouveau in the broadest sense. The ground floor, in particular, is rather astonishing with tracery, irregular oval windows and flowing sculpted stone work.Gaudi's work was greatly influenced by forms of nature and this is reflected by the use of curved construction stones, twisted iron sculptures, and organic-like forms which are traits of Gaudi's Barcelona architecture.
  2. Tassel House. Brussle Belgium 1892-93. Victor HortaHorta made a break with the past here by using stone and he modern material, metal, in domestic architecture. The modernity of Horta's town house is also signaled by the extensive use of glass, where the window sizes may indicate the function of the interior. The facade includes classical elements like moldings and columns but here some of the columns are iron, not stone, and the entablature is metal, complete with exposed rivets. In addition, this town house has features an open floor plan; a use of natural light; a unity of architecture, interior decoration, and furniture.
  3. The rietveld Schroder House, Utrchet Netherland 1925. By Rietveld Gerrit.he Schroder House is the only building that was designed in complete accordance with the De Stijl style, which was marked by primary colors and pure ideas.each component has its own form, position and colour. Colours were chosen as to strengthen the plasticity of the facades; surfaces in white and shades of grey, black window and doorframes, and a number of linear elements in primary colours. Rietveld broke with 'De Stijl' in 1928 and became associated with a more functionalist style of architecture.Pier Mondrian Theo van Doesberg. create 2d xompositions with this notion of color and composition - cubism.
  4. Hill House, C.R. Mackintosh, 1902-04. Helensburg, Scotland.McKintosh believed the functional issues should firstly be solved to then let the beauty aspect evolve from the solution.he had followed the client for several days prior the desgin to learm th household's habbits and daily preformences.In addition to the house itself, Mackintosh also designed most of the interior rooms, furniture and other fixings. Mackintosh's attention to detail even extended to prescribing the colour of cut flowers that the client might place on a table.
    • Dom-inostructural system, 1914. Le Courbusier
    • The Dom-ino system refers to the structural system that allows a free floor and wall plan, due to the load bearing columns within the skeleton of the structure.
    • The free plan, as it relates to architecture refers to an open plan with non load-bearing partitions dividing interior space. In this structural system, the building structure is separate of interior partitions. This is made possible by the elimination of interior load-bearing walls, by moving the structure of the building to the exterior, or by having columns that are free from space dividing partitions.
    • Citrohan House, 1920.
    • he house used a rectangular plan, with exterior walls that were not filled by windows, left as white, stuccoed spaces. Le Corbusier and Jeanneret left the interior aesthetically spare, with any movable furniture made of tubular metal frames.
    • rbusier proposed a three-floor structure, with a double-height living room, bedrooms on the second floor, and a kitchen on the third floor. The roof would be occupied by a sun terrace. On the exterior Le Corbusier installed a stairway to provide second-floor access from ground level.
  5. Villa Savoye 1929,Le Courbousier. Poissy (Paris Suborb) France.

    • Implementation of the 5 prinicples of Architecture by Le Courbusier.
    • ; "Five Points":
    • pilotis, free plan, free facade, ribbon window, roof garden; architectural promenade.
  6. Vienna,Secession Building, 1898-99, arch. J.M. Olbrich. Austria.

    • The Secession building could be considered the icon of the movement. Above its entrance was carved the phrase "to every age its art and to art its freedom". Secession artists were concerned, above all else, with exploring the possibilities of art outside the confines of academic tradition. They hoped to create a new style that owed nothing to historical influence.
    • architects focused on bringing purer geometric forms into the designs of their buildings.
  7. Postal Savings Bank. Vienna Austria 1904. Wagner

    The buildling stands out from its Secessionist peers in demonstrating the principle that Otto Wagner had proposed in 1895, that 'what is impractical cannot be beautiful.'
  8. Palais Stoclet. brussels belgium. Hoffman 1905

    cuboid masses with planar facades and contrasting edge detailing. Tall vertical window at main stair.
    • Steiner House, Vienna 1910. Adolf Loose
    • Built in the same year as the essay Architecktur was published (1910), Hugo Steiner's house is one of Loos's most significant and well-known works. Because of its severe and advanced modernity of form it has been adopted in the histories of contemporary architecture as an example of the phase of transition and an anticipation of the language of Rationalism.
    • Villa Muller, 1930. Loose. Prague, Chech Republic.
    • to Loos’s idea of the Raumplan (Spaceplan).
    • Known as an innovative landmark of early modernist architecture, the Villa Müller embodies Loos' ideas of economy and functionality. The spatial design, known as Raumplan, is evident in the multi-level parts of individual rooms, indicating their function and symbolic importance. Raumplan is exhibited in the interior as well as the exterior.
    • My architecture is not conceived in plans, but in spaces (cubes). I do not design floor plans, facades, sections. I design spaces. For me, there is no ground floor, first floor, etc...For me, there are only contiguous, continual spaces, rooms, anterooms, terraces, etc. Storeys merge and spaces relate to each other.[3]
    • Bruno Taut 1919
    • Alpine Architecture, Glass Pavilion - Taut is known best for his theoretical work, speculative writings and the buildings he designed. Taut's best-known single building is the prismatic dome of the Glass Pavilion for the Cologne Werkbund Exhibition (1914). His sketches for the publication "Alpine Architecture" (1917) are the work of an unabashed Utopian visionary, and he is classified as a Modernist and in particular as an Expressionist.
    • Taut is known best for his theoretical work, speculative writings and the buildings he designed. Taut's best-known single building is the prismatic dome of the Glass Pavilion for the Cologne Werkbund Exhibition (1914). His sketches for the publication "Alpine Architecture" (1917) are the work of an unabashed Utopian visionary, and he is classified as a Modernist and in particular as an Expressionist.
    • Grosse Schauspielhaus (Large Theater), Hans
    • Poelzig, 1919
    • It was painted red. It was a cavernous, domed space and had no balconies, which contributed to its vastness. The dome and pillars were decorated with maquernas, a honeycombed pendentive ornament, which resembled stalactites. When illuminated, the ceiling'slightbulbs formed patterns of celestial constellations, and the vaulted ceiling took on another concept, the night sky. In the lobby and elsewhere, Poelzig made use of colored lightbulbs to create striking visual backdrops.
    • Einstein Tower. Mendelsohn. Germany 1914
    • Expressive building. precedent of the spheinx. has potential of movement and also formal shape and color contrast.
    • Iconic german expressionism.
    • Cittá Nuova (New City), Antonio Sant' Elia, 1914.
    • s described in this manifesto, his designs featured bold groupings and large-scale disposition of planes and masses creating a heroic industrial expressionism. His vision was for a highly industrialised and mechanized city of the future, which he saw not as a mass of individual buildings but a vast, multi-level, interconnected and integrated urban conurbation designed around the "life" of the city.
  9. "Monument to the Third International" (Soviet Congress),Vladimir Tatlin, 1920.

    • Painted red.
    • The helix represents the freedom.
    • ideal platonic form, cube, pyramide and cylibder contained in a spiral - in infinite dynamic composition.
    • The turbine Factory, Peter Buherns, 1908. Berlin.
    • Behrens built a magnificent iron and glass hybrid of two eminently classicaltemple traditions—the Greek and the Egyptian—meant to glorify industrial might.In accepting the challenge of designing his first industrial building, Behrens’s concernwas not to recast all of architecture in terms of industry and the machine, as was mostoften the case with the next generation of modern architects.
    • Fagus Factory, 1911 Walter Gropius. Germany.
    • Gropius is the founder of the Bauhaus school.
    • The building look unified as a whole. The architects achieved this by the use of some common elements in all the buildings. The first one is the use of floor-to-ceiling glass windows on steel frames that go around the corners of the buildings without a visible (most of the time without any) structural support. The other unifying element is the use of brick.
    • Bauhaus, Walter Gropius,1926. Dessau, Germany.
    • Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents inModernist architecture and modern design.[1] The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.
    • barcelina Pavilion 1929. International Exhibition.
    • cf. Brick House; Le Corbusier's
    • Dom-ino Skeleton; "Dancer" by G. Kolbe; "Barcelona Chair and Stool;"
    • cf. Athens, Parthenon.
    • Weissenhof Settlement, 1927. stuttgard
    • included twenty-one buildings comprising sixty dwellings, designed by seventeen European architects Mies van der Rohe was in charge of the project on behalf of the city, and it was he who selected the architects.
    • What they have in common are their simplified facades, flat roofs used as terraces, window bands, open plan interiors, and the high level of prefabrication which permitted their erection in just five months
    • Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago. 1948
    • Lake Shore Drive Apartments embody a Modernistic tone with their verticality, grids of steel and glass curtain walls (a hallmark of Mies’ skyscrapers), and complete lack of ornamentation. Since Mies was a master of minimalist composition, his principle was “less is more” as it is demonstrated in his self-proclaimed “skin and bones” architecture.[5]