AP Bio

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AP Bio
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2012-03-28 02:53:12
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  1. What are the small circular self replicating pieces of DNA found in bacteria?
    Plasmids
  2. Structure that allows prokaryotes to move
    Flagella
  3. Part of a prokaryotes cell wall that enables it to adhere to their substrate or to other individuals in a colony
    Capsule
  4. Their cell walls are typically composed of peptidoglycan, a network of polymers and short polypeptides
    Bacteria
  5. Type of prokaryote that eats cells, tissues, or fluids of another organism. Does not kill the organism directly, but sometimes indirectly.
    Parasite
  6. When prokaryotes break down corpses, dead vegetation, and waste products.
    Decomposers
  7. Three most common shapes of this organism are spherical, rod-shaped, and spiral.
    Prokaryotes
  8. Cell walls contain polysaccharides and proteins but no peptidoglycan
    Archaea
  9. Group of Eukaryotes that includes amoebas that have lobe or tube-shaped pseudopodia.
    Unikonta
  10. Supergroup of eukaryotes
    - have an "excavated" groove on one side of the cell body
    - includes diplomonads, parabasalids, and euglenozoans
    Excavata
  11. Supergroup that includes parasites such as Giardia - causes diarrhea from drinking contaminated water.
    Excavata
  12. Group of eukaryotes
    - includes brown algae that form underwater kelp forests
    - some are pathogens like plasmodium that causes malaria
    Chromalveolata
  13. Supergroup of eukaryotes
    - consists of species of amoebas most of which have threadlike pseudopodia
    - example Forams and Radiolarians
    Rhizaria
  14. Group of eukaryotes
    - red algae/ green algae, also includes land plants
    - also forms seaweeds
    Archaeplastida
  15. Why did the domain monera become obsolete?
    It has members in eukarya and archaea
  16. Which organism is more closely related ones in the same class or the same family?
    Family
  17. Bacteria, archaea, and eukarya are the three _____.
    Domains
  18. Which domain has:
    - no nuclear envelope
    - no membrane enclosed organelles
    - no peptidoglycan in the cell walls
    - introns present in some genes
    Archaea
  19. Every organism has a unique two part name
    - Genus, species
    - Ex. Homo sapiens
    Binomial nomenclature
  20. An ecological interaction between prokaryote and a host in which both species benefits:
    Mutualism
  21. - points out common ancestors
    - is developed using systematics
    Phylogenetic trees
  22. Dear King Phillip Comes Over For Good Spaghetti
    Taxonomic categories
  23. Which domain contains all eukaryotes?
    Eukarya
  24. What other taxonomic categories must two organisms also belong two if they are in the same class?
    Domain, Kingdom, Phylum
  25. Includes members that are more closely related to plants, fungi, or animals than to other protists
    Polyphyletic
  26. Order from most general to most specific: Family, Species, Genus, Order
    Order, Family, Genus, Species
  27. A discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships
    Systematics
  28. Because eukarya and arcahaea diverge later from the common ancestor, this shows that:
    They are more closely related.
  29. - part of the three domain system
    - includes: fungi and diatoms
    Eukarya
  30. Describe cell walls of Fungi
    Similar to plant cell walls except contains Chitin (which is strong and flexible) nitrogen containing polysaccharide
  31. Assigned to the phylum Glomeromycota, these fungi form arbuscular mycorrhizae, they are attached to about 90% of all plant species.
    Glomeromycetes
  32. The globular fruiting body that forms multicellular branched hyphae
    Chytids
  33. A phylum of fungi hyphae grow rapidly into foods, acting as either decomposers or parasites, other species live as neutral symbionts
    zygomycetes
  34. - Also called club fungi
    - Often important as decomposers; unusual in having a long-lived dikaryotic myceleum
    basidiomycetes
  35. Phylum of fungi
    - called sac fungi or orange peel fungus
    ascomycetes
  36. Common to many marine, fresh-water and terrestrial habitats; another phylum of fungus
    ascomycetes
  37. Believed to be one of the earliest fungal groups to diverge from other fungi.
    Chytrids
  38. Supergroup that include key photosynthetic species that form the base of the food web in some aquatic communities
    archaeplastida
  39. Cellstructures are extensions that bulge from any portion of the cell. They are used in movement and in the capture of prey.
    Pseudopodia
  40. Eukaryotes that are neither plants, animals, or fungi.
    Protists
  41. Which branch point includes protists most closely related to animals or fungi?
    Unikonta
  42. What is the key process that has caused the diversity of protists?
    endosymbiosis and secondary endosymbiosis
  43. Define the importance of endosymbiosis and the role it has played over time.
    • - has allowed for more complex organelles to evolve
    • - this is where mitochondria in cells is said to have evolved from
    • - cellular organisms engulf other cells
  44. The less common fungal body structure is _____
    yeasts
  45. Heterotrophs, but do not eat their food.
    Fungi
  46. A symbiotic association between a photosyntheitc microorganism and a fungus in which millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae.
    Lichen
  47. Most fungi propagate (reproduce) themselves by producing vast numbers of ____, either sexually or asexually.
    Spores
  48. The most common fungal body structures are ______.
    multicellular filaments
  49. Fungi use powerful ____ _____ to break down complex molecules into smaller organic compounds that the fungi can absorb into their bodies.
    Hydrolytic enzymes
  50. The morphology of this kingdom enhances their ability to grow into and absorb nutrients from their surroundings.
    - Bodies have a network of tiny filaments called hyphae
    fungi
  51. What are 3 commercial roles of fungi?
    cheese, yogurt, citric acid for soft drinks, yeast for bread, alcohol, medicine
  52. Describe the roles of fungi in the ecosystems.
    • Decomposers - break down organic molecules and certain carbon, nitrogen, etc. to the soil for reuse.
    • Mutalists - make toxins in plants to herbivores processing host's digestion?
    • Pathogens: parasites mostly in plants
  53. Oxidize inorganic substances such as H2S, NH3, and Fe2+ to convert CO2 into organic compounds.
    Chemoautotrophs
  54. Use light energy to convert CO2 and CO3- into organic compounds
    photoautotrophs
  55. Prokaryotes that use oxygen for cellular respiration.
    Obligate aerobes
  56. Prokaryotes that use O2 if present; however, can use anaerobic respiration or fermentation in its absence
    faculative anaerobes
  57. Contain a complex membrane and wall. They contain less peptidoglycan and in addition to a cell wall they have an outer membrane of lipopolysaccharides.
    Gram-negative bacteria
  58. Prokaryotes that are poisoned by oxygen. They either live by fermentation or anaerobic respiration.
    Obligate anaerobes
  59. Their cell walls contain large amounts of peptidoglycan and are relatively simple.
    Gram-positive bacteria
  60. Consumes organic molecules
    chemoheterotrophs
  61. Harnesses energy from light, but utilizes organic compounds or raw materials
    photoheterotrophs

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