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The Virginia company
- A private business organization whose share holder
- included merchants, aristocrats and members of parliaments to which the queen has given her blessing before her death in 1603.
- Sponsored the voyage April 26 1607. Voyage – 3small
- ships carrying colonist from England, sailed out from Cape Henry into the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In order for colonies to survive, company abandons the search for gold, grow its own food and find a marketable product. For
- attracting more settlers, the company announced new policies in 1618 which then shaped Virginia’s development as a functioning society rather than the outpostof London base investor.
- Why is it significant?
- They laid a foundation for a society that would one
- day be dominated economically and politically by slave owning planters.
In 17th century, Englishmen who voluntarily traded their freedom for a fixed amount of time (usually 5 to 7years ) for a passage to America. They could be bought and sold, could not marry without their owner’s consent, punishable physically. Court enforced “work” on these servants. If a female servant became pregnant the laws lengthen the term of their indenture.
- After their term, they can become free member of
- society released from their bondage.
- System introduced by Virginia company awarding 50
- acres of land to any colonist who paid for his own or another’s passage. When an owner brought in a sizable number servants, they gained a large land.
House of Burgesses
- It was assemble in 1619 and it became the first
- elected assembly in colonial America. Only land owners could vote, and the company and its appointed governor retained the right to nullify any measure the body adopted.
- It creation established a political precedent that all English colonies would eventually follow.
- English religious group that sought to purify the Church of England by advocating strict religious discipline along with simplification of the ceremonies and creeds of the Church of England.
- founded the Massachusetts bay colony under John Winthrop
- in 1630
- It was signed in 1620 aboard the Mayflower before
- the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, the document committed the group to majority-rule government. Due to
- Mayflower compact, the adult men going ashore agreed to obey “just and equal laws” enacted by representatives of their own choosing. Indeed, it was the first written frame of government what is now the United States.
King Philip’s War
It is the bloodiest and most bitter conflict between Indians and settlers, occurred in southern New England in 1675.The Indian alliance launched attacks on farms and settlements that were encroaching on Indian lands. The war is named after the Wampanoag leader Metacom, known to the colonist as King Philip. It was the most dramatic and violent warfare in entire seventeenth century and Idian’s were stripped from their power in mid 1676 once and for all. In long run, king philip’s war produced a broadening of freedom for white new Englanders by expanding their access to land but this freedom rested on the final dispossession of the region’s Indians.
It is a theory that government regulates economic activity so as to promote national power. It encourages manufacturing and commerce by special bounty, monopolies and other measures. Trades are controlled so that more gold and silver flow into the country rather than going out. The role of colonies was to serve to enrich mother country by producing marketable raw materials and importing manufactured goods from home.
Weak imperial authority resulted in colonial assemblies(landowners, merchants, and lawers) controlling over local politics and uses that control of finance to exert influence over appointed governor and councils.
- philosophical movement, originated among French thinkers and soon spread to Britain; it also crisscrossed the Atlantic along with goods and people
- sought to apply political and social life the scientific method of careful investigation based on research and experiment;
- enlightenment thinkers insisted that every human institution, authority, and tradition be judged before the bar of reason. It also affected the religion which created Arminianism, which taught that reason alone was capable of establishing the essentials of religion.
Ardent religious revival movement in the 1720s through the 1740s that was spread throughout the colonies by ministers like New England Congregationalist Jonathan Edwards and English revivalist George Whitefield. It is a response to rationalism of Enlightenment and a desire for greater religious purity. It was mainly attracted to men and women of modest means.
- a war that was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, and Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great
- Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War (1754–1763). Warriors from numerous tribes joined the uprising in an effort to drive British soldiers and settlers out of the region. The war is named after the Ottawa leader Pontiac, the most prominent of many native leaders in the conflict.
Neolin was a Delaware religious prophet who helped to inspire the Pontiac’s rebellion. During a religious vision, the Master of Life instructed Neolin that his peope must reject dependence on European technology, free themselves from commercial ties with whites and dependence on alcohol, clothe themselves in the garb of their ancestors and drive the British from their territory although friendly French inhabitants could remain. He combined this message and brought up the new idea of pan-Indian identity. He preached that all Indians were single people and only through cooperation regain their lost independence.
- It is a revenue act of 1764 of which the Parliament’s tax on refined sugar and many other colonial products.
- It was introduced by Prime Minister George Grenville
- and it reduced the existing tax on molasses imported into North America from the French west indies from six pence to three pence per gallon.
- Also the act established a new machinery to end widespread smuggling by colonial merchants by strengthening admiralty courts,
- where accused smugglers could be judged without benefit of a jury trial.
- So colonists did not welcome the measure as they saw it as an attempt to get them to pay a levy they would otherwise have evaded.
Committees of Correspondence
- Founded by Mercy Otis Warren, sister of James Otis and wife of James Warren.
- Committee made up of colonial leaders opposing new law’s implementation such as sugar and currency act.
Declaration of independence
- July 2, 1776
- Congress declared formally the United States as an independent nation.
- Declaration written by Thomas Jefferson, revised by the congress before approval.
- Contents includes a lengthy list of grievances directed against King George III, ranging from quartering troops in colonial homes to imposing taxes without the colonists consent. It also includes everyone are created equal so should have equal rights and opportunity. Government cannot take them away.
- All in all, declaration of independence is ultimately an assertion of the right of revolution.
Treaty of Paris(1763)
France gave Canada to Britain in return for sugar islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique. Spain gave Florida to Britain in return for Philippines and cuba seized by the British during the seven years’ war. Spain gets Louisiana colony from France. It also left Indians more dependent than ever on British and introduced in a period of confusion over land claims, control of fur trade, and tribal relations in general.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
- In 1783, American and british negotiators concluded treaty of paris.
- American won recognition of independence along with control of the entire region between Canada and florida east of the Mississippi river and the right of americans to fish in Atlantic waters off of Canada.
- On british side, americans agreed that colonists who had remained loyal to the mother country would not suffer persecution and that loyalists property that had been seized by local and state governments would b restored.
- In late 1786 and 1787.
- Massachusetts farmer Daniel Shays and 1,200 compatriots,
- seeking debt relief through issuance of paper currency and lower taxes,
- attempted to prevent courts from seizing property from indebted farmers.
Northwest ordinance of 1787
- A final measure approved by congress which called for eventual establishment of from 3 to 5 states north of Ohio River and east of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi.
- It promised that the “utmost good faith” would be observed toward local Indians and that their land wouldnot be taken without consent.
- This was the first official recognition that Indians continued to own their land.
- It also prohibited slavery in the old Northwest, even though the owners still brought slaves into the area by claiming that they had voluntarily signed long-term labor contracts.
- A series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and it’s colonies
- started in 1651.
- Certain enumerated goods , most valuable colonial products such as tobacco and sugar-had to be transported in English ships and sold initially in English ports then they can reexported to foreign markets.
- This made English merchants, manufacturers, shipbuilders and sailors to reap benefits of colonial trade and the government to enjoy added income from taxes. This act stimulated the rise of New England’s shipbuilding industry.
Checks and balances
- The system of “checks and balances” or the “separation of powers” refers to the way the Constitution seeks to prevent any branch of the national government from dominating the other two.
- To prevent an accumulation of power dangerous to liberty, authority within the government is diffused and balanced against itself.
- Congress enacts laws, but the president can veto them, Federal judges are nominated by the president, and approved by the Congress, but to ensure their independence, the judges then serve for life.
- The president can be impeached by the House and removed from office by the Senate for “high crimes and misdemeanors.”
- Bacon’s Rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon.
- Governor William Berkeley run 30yrs of corrupt regime in alliance with an inner circle of the colony’s wealthiest tobacco planters.
- Rewarded followers with land grants and lucrative offices. Tobacco boom in Virginia at first benefitted not only planters but also smaller farmers, some of them former servants who
- managed to acquire farms.
- But as the prices for tobacco falls because of over production and heavy taxes were charged, small farmers no longer get any benefits from it.
- Also the right to vote, previously enjoyed by all adult men
- was confined to only landowners in 1670.
- Corrupted Governor protecting native Americans erupted Bacon’s rebellion.
- Bacon demanded reduced taxes, end to rule by a grandees and removal of all Indians from the colony.
- The rebellion scared the virginia’s ruling elites although the rebellion itself was unsuccessful.
- Being frightened, ruling elites took dramtic steps to consolidate their power and improve their image. They restored property qualifications for voting, reduced taxes and adopted more aggressive Indian policy.
- Slave codes were laws in each US state, which defined the status of slaves and the rights of masters.
- These codes gave slave-owners absolute power over the African slaves.
- In 1688,
- Long struggle for domination of English government between Parliament and the crown reached its conclusion in the Glorious Revolution, which established parliamentary supremacy once and for all and secured the protestant succession to the throne. Under Charles II Parliament control extended to finances, foreign affairs. But not included the political and religious power catholics and dissenters.
- After Charles died in1685, James II his brother took over the crown who is a Catholic and a believer that kings ruled by divine rights.
- Dutch noble man William of orange, the husband of James’ protestant daughter Mary, brought 21000 soldiers where 2/3 of them were Dutch, driving off James in 1688.
- Overthrowing him completed the revolution and making William the king.
- It also rooted firmly then ever the notion that liberty was the birthright of all Englishmen and that the king was subject to the rule of law.
English Bill of Rights
- This is enacted in 1689
- Listed parliamentary powers such as control over taxation as well as rights of individuals,including trail by jury. These were the ancient and undoubted rights and liberties of all Englishmen
Dominion of New England
- Consolidation into a single colony of the New England colonies- and later New York and New Jersey – by royal governor Edmund Andros in 1686
- dominion reverted to individual colonial governments three years later.
- Hoping to raise money from America in order to reduce his
- dependence on Parliament, James II between 1686 and 168 combined Connecticut,Plymouth, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York and East and
- West Jersey into a singer super-colony, the Dominion of New England. It was ruled by former New York governor Sir Edmund Andros, who did not have to answer to an elected assembly.
Atlantic Slave Trade
- A series of triangular trading routes crisscrossed the atlantic, carrying British manufactured goods to Africa and the colonies, colonial products including tobacco, indigo, sugar and rice to Europe and slaves from Africa to the new world. Merchants in New York, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island participated actively in the slave trade, shiping slaves from
- Africa to the Caribbean or southern colonies.
- Atlantic trade consisted mainly of slaves, crops produced by slaves, and goods destined for slave societies
Two Treaties on Government
- Eighteenth-century political ideas celebrating freedom came to known as liberalism.
- Leading philosopher of liberty John Locke,two treatises of government, written around 1680, had limited influence in his
- own lifetime but well known in the next century.
- He wrote that government was formed by a mutual agreement among equals (the parties being male heads of households not all persons. Other writers wrote compared government to the family, assuming that in both, inequality was natural and power always emanated from the top. Locke opposes that idea and said it is inappropriate for comparing when it comes to organizing public life. In this “social contract”,men surrendered a part of their right to govern themselves in order to enjoy the benefits of the rule of law. They retained however, their natural rights, whose existence predated the establishment of political authority. Protecting the security of life, liberty, and property required shielding a realm of private life and personal concerns – including family relations, religious preferences, and economic activity- from interference by the state.
Sons of Liberty
- Organizations formed by Samuel Adams, John Hancock and other radicals in response to the Stamp Act
- A body led by talented and ambitious lesser
- merchants like Alexander McDougall, Isaac Sears, and John Lamb and followed by city’s craftsmen, laborers, and sailors.
- They earned fortunes as privateers plundering French shipping during the Seven Years war and New York’s lieutenant governor They enforced the boycott of British imports when they oppose the Stamp Act posting notices
- saying “Liberty, Property, and No Stamps”. They also led a group of people who attacked Thomas Hutchinson’s house in Boston, Major Thomas James a british officer who boasted that he would force the stamps down new yorker’s throats
Clash between British soldiers and a Boston mob, March 5, 1770 in which five colonists were killed.
A sailor of mixed Indian-African white ancestry who later be remembered as the first martyr of the American revolution. He’s the first person to get killed at the boston massacre.
Boston Tea Party
- On December 16,1773, the Sons of Liberty dressed as
- Indians, dumped hundreds of chests of tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act of 1773, under which the British exported to the colonies millions of pounds of cheap- but still taxed- tea, thereby undercutting the price of smuggled tea and forcing payment of the tea duty.
- The Quebec Act extended the southern boundary of
- that Canadian province to the Ohio River and granted legal toleration to the Roman Catholic Church in Canada. The act sough to secure the loyalty of Quebec’s Catholics by offering rights denied to their coreligionists in Britain, including practicing their faith freely and holding positions in the civil service.
- Indeed the act threw into questions of land claims in the Ohio country and persuaded many colonists that government in London was conspiring to strengthen Catholicism.
Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation
It offers freedom to any slave who escaped to Dunmore’s lines and bore arms for the King. The proclamation was issued in November 1775 by the earl of Dunmore, the British governor and military commander in Virginia. Southern leaders were outraged by the proclamation.
- Common sense appeared in January 1776. The author
- was Thomas Paine, but listed only as “an Englishman”. The pamphalet began not with a recital of colonial grievances but with an attack on the “so much boasted Constitutiion of England” and the principles of hereditary rule and monarchical government.
- He claimed that far preferable than monarchy would be a democratic system based on frequent elections, with citizen’s rights protected by a written constitution.
Bank of the United States
- Proposed by the first secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton,
- the bank opened in 1791 and operated until 1811
- to issue a uniform currency, make business loans, and collect tax monies.
- The Second Bank of the United States was
- chartered in 1816 but President Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter bill in 1832.
Report of Manufactures
- Report on Manufactures delivered to Congress in
- December 1791.
- In it Hamilton called for the imposition of a tariff( a tax on
- imported foreign goods) and government subsidies to encourage the development of factories that could manufacture products currently purchased from abroad.
- He also proposed the creation of a national army to deal with uprisings like Shay’s Rebellion.
- Strict constructionists are southerners who had supported the new Constitution.
- They became strict constructionists as they opposed to Hamilton’s program. Hamilton insisted that
- all his plans were authorized by Constitution’s ambiguous clause empowering Congress to enact laws for the “general welfare”, but the southerners insisted that the federal government could only exercise powers specifically listed in the document.
The Genet Affair
Edmond Genet , a French envoy seeking to arouse support for his annoying government. He commission American ships to attack British vessels under the French Flag but Washington administration asked for his recall. He deeming the situation in france too dangerious, decided to remain in America and married the daughter of George Clinton, the governor of New York.
Treaty with Britain negotiated in 1794 by Chief Justice John Jay; Britain agreed to vacate forts in the Northwest Territories, and festering disagreements (border with Canada, prewar debts, shipping claims) would be settled by commission.
- The whiskey rebellion of 1794 broke out when
- back-country Pennsylvania farmers sought to block collection of the new tax on distilled spirits. The rebellion reinforced the assurance that the federalists may have been the only major party in American history forthrightly to proclaim democracy and freedom dangerous in the hands of ordinary citizens
- French foreign minister Tallyrand’s three anonymous agents demanded payments to stop French plundering of American ships in 1797
- refusal to pay the bribe was followed by two years of undeclared sea war with France (1789-1800)
Alien and Sedition Acts (1789)
- The Alien act allowed the deportation of persons from abroad deemed “dangerous” by federal authorities.
- The Sedition act (which was set to expire in 1801, by which time Adams hoped to have been reelected) authorized the prosecution of virtually any public assembly or publication critical of the government. These are the acts the federalists did to silence the critics.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
- Passed by the Virginia and the Kentucky legislatures;
- written by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts,
- the resolutions advanced the state-compact theory of the Constitution.
- Virginia’s resolution called on the federal courts to protect free speech.
- Jefferson’s draft for Kentucky stated that a state could nullify federal law, but this was deleted.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
- First U.S. supreme court decision to declare a federal law – the Judiciary Act of 1801- invalidated a law by saying unconstitutional.
- It’s a landmark case formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United Sates under Article III of the constitution.
President Thomas Jefferson’s 1803 purchase from France of the important port of New Orleans and 828,000 square miles west fo the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains; it more than doubled the territory of the United States at a cost of only $15 million.
Embargo Act of 1807
- Attempt to exert economic pressure by prohibiting all exports from the United States, instead of waging
- war in reaction to continued British impressments of American sailors;
- smugglers easily circumvented the embargo, and it was repealed two years later.
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