History FINAL

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History FINAL
2012-03-28 01:40:52
History FINAL

History FINAL
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  1. What heretic was burned at the stake by the council of Constance in 1417?
    John HusWikipedia: Jan Hus, often referred to in English as John Hus or John Huss, was a Czech priest, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague.
  2. What Spanish Conquistador conquered the Aztecs in 1521?
  3. The first unified nation in western Europe is considered to be
    • ·
    • Portugal
  4. Who brought Castile and Aragon into dynastic unity
    Ferdinand and Isabella
  5. The word ethnocentricity means
    judging other groups by standards of own ethnic group
  6. The painter of The Creation in the Sistine Chapel was
  7. What is the name given to the period in the fourteenth century when the Pope lived in Avignon?
    • ·
    • The Babylonian Captivity
  8. What technological achievement ensured the spread of Luther’s ideas?
    Printing press
  9. Protestantism believed that religious authority came only from
    the bible
  10. What major event occurred on 31 October 1517?
    Protestant Reformation
  11. What was the primary reason for the English nobility’s support for the Anglican Church?
    Feared loss of investments
  12. A doctrine formulated particularly by who was that of predestination
    John Calvin
  13. What classical philosophy was re-discovered by Italians in the 14th century which supported a belief in individualism and materialism?
    • ·
    • Humanism
  14. Protestantism believed that salvation came only from
  15. British claims to North America were established during the 1490’s by the explorer?
    John Cabot
  16. Luxury items such as silks, perfume and spices were in great demand in Western Europe as result of
    The Crusades
  17. What painted the Mona Lisa?
    Da Vinci
  18. What treaty in 1594 divided the world between Spain and Portugal?
  19. Who objected to Roman Catholic corruption and materialism
    John Wycliffe
  20. Who wrote the Book of Common Prayer?
  21. The man who converted Scotland to Calvinism was
  22. John Knox
  23. What Native American civilization is considered to be the founding civilization for Central America?
  24. Which North American group would you find living in the Northwest United States?
  25. Slavery in the Caribbean initially expanded because of the success of plantations growing
  26. After 1632 only one European people were able to directly trade with Japan until 1854. Which of the following was it?
  27. What city did the Ottomans conquer and make their new capital in the 15th century?
  28. About 950 AD the first stone walled buildings were built in Zimbabwe by the
  29. Those Muslims who believe the leader of the Islamic world should be related to Muhammad are called
  30. The Chinese ruler who moved the capital to Beijing was
  31. The most famous of Mali kings because of his trip of Mecca was
    Mansa Muse
  32. The Jesuit missionary who introduced Catholicism to Japan was
    Francis Xavier
  33. The Islamic calendar begins with the
  34. Islamic armies were defeated, and thus kept from conquering Western Europe, at the battles of
    • · Tours and Poitiers
    • Islamic armies were defeated, and thus kept from conquering Western Europe, at the battles of
  35. A major African Kingdom which participated in the slave trade was
  36. In what city did the University of Sankore located?
  37. The last dynasty in Chinese history is the
  38. The Soninke people established the kingdom of
  39. Local military leaders in medieval Japan were called
  40. In 1683, for the first time, Taiwan was put under Chinese rule during which dynasty?
  41. The term Atlantic World has come to include all of the following regions EXCEPT
    South AfricaWikipedia: A country of southern Africa on the Atlantic and Indian oceans.
  42. The first slaves to arrive in the English colonies in America were put ashore at
  43. In the Caribbean, the position of doctor, philosopher and priest among slaves was brought from Africa in the person of the
  44. Chattel slavery defined slaves as
    personal property
  45. The major European slave trading nation in the 18th century was
  46. Who invented the Cotton Gin
    Eli Whitney
  47. Robert Knox was most closely associated with racism based on
  48. The Black African Saint who fought in the Crusades was known in the West as
    St Morris
  49. Which was a member of the Social Darwinists?
  50. The largest number of African slaves were brought to the
    CaribbeanWikipedia: Of or relating to the Caribbean Sea, its islands, or its Central or South American coasts or to the peoples or cultures of this region.
  51. Revolution =
    Change (it was a communications revolution)
  52. Secularism
    • turned away or against religion, man made existence and science
    • defines religion
  53. Francis Bacon Explanation for science
    science was gift from god to recreate Garden of Eden and Science was based on inductive reasoning
  54. 5 things Enlightenment
    • RNLPH
    • o 1. Reason ,
    • o 2. Nature
    • o 3. Liberty
    • o 4. Progress
    • 5. Happiness
  55. those who signed declaration of independence were
  56. Deism
    don’t believe in miracles or praying, believe we can fix own problems, gives no hope
  57. Great Watch maker Theory
    God made watch, left, and piece fell out – we are no longer where we are
  58. John Locke
    1689 wrote Two Treaties on Civil Government,

    concluded god given rights unalienable – life, liberty, property; god controlled government
  59. Adam Smith
    Wealth of Nations wrote in 1776,

    • concluded that natural form of economics was capitalism,
    • demand and supply, subsistence wage
  60. Montesquieu
    wrote Law of Nature,

    noticed different legal systems for same type of crime, said that legal system based on environment
  61. Rousseau
    wrote Social Contract 1752,

    humanity in universe was happy, created own institutions separate from god, pure democracy or majority rules creating small communities of 40,000
  62. Cult of Science
    answers can be found in science;

    • Newton = Gravity
    • Galileo = Telescope and Astronomy
  63. Descartes believed
    truth found in math, “I think therefore I am” - (I am rational)
  64. Baron d’ Holbach
    wrote System of Nature 1790s

    humans are animals, humans are self-aware, humans have free will; our biggest problem was that we are self-aware (make up stories about afterlife)
  65. Romanticism
    new 19th century philosophy, spiritual existence does exist
  66. Emanuel Kant
    agnostic, belief but not depended on god
  67. Rebellion
    against change
  68. 1750 = Similarities between the 13 colonies included:
    • 1. Colonial Assembly (1st was in Virginia – House of Burgess),
    • 2. taxed themselves, had British governor (paid by assembly),
    • 3. literacy rate was 83% (were Puritans and had to read Bible)
  69. 1750 Navigation Acts
    control trade, had to buy British goods, got around by smuggling and colonies were independent
  70. 1756 = 7 Year War
    exploits India, also known as French Indian war between French and British
  71. Militia
    were private and independent, every colony had one, military was organized, weapons shot spread
  72. Logistics
    businessman bought commodity selling back to British colonies bought with gold, New England businessman thought to supply British and French but did not have enough gold to double supplies
  73. 1763 = war ended with surplus of commodity
    British wins French Indian War, American colonist had wrong idea of democracy
  74. Virtual representation
    • every British citizen represented by parliament members
    • (500 to 1)
  75. Salutary neglect
    British accepted own fault for allowing colonies’ ideas
  76. 1763 Currency Act
    stopped printing money and demand using gold, British compensation for winging French Indian war was 7 million pound
  77. 1764 Sugar Act
    40,000 pounds to help pay the 7 million pound, taxes on sugar
  78. 1765 Stamp Act
    tax on stamps, no jury trial if taxes were not paid for stamps
  79. 1766 Declaratory Act
    British proclaimed its authority, repealed taxes, tax payers revolt – cut taxes by half million pound the American colonies themselves
  80. 1767 Townshend Duties
    minimal tax on everyday items that were irreplaceable (lead for guns and bullets, tea)
  81. John Dickinson =
    • ·
    • rebelled
    • Townshend Duties, wrote “Letters from Farmer in Pennsylvania”, urged farmers to be involved, was propaganda, (American revolution was urban revolution meaning farmers did not feel effects of taxes
    • on lead)
  82. 5 March 1770
    professional protesters British armory, British military was young and uneducated, 5 colonists died, Crispus Attucks was 1st to die, Boston Massacre, parliament repealed Townshend Duties, taxed only tea
  83. were all radicalsSamuel Adams, Thomas Paine, John Adams, and John Hancock
    were all radicals
  84. King George Third
    no parliament power, insane
  85. Lord North
    = prime minister of Britain in 1770-1773 by default, didn’t want to sell tea which led to tax and upsetting radicals thereafter, chose British East India Company which became the only company allowed to sell tea
  86. John Hancock
    was tea smuggler
  87. 1773 Boston Tea Party
    British sent navy and army occupy Boston reaction to destruction of private property which was the tea
  88. September 1774
    • representative of 13 colonies met in 1st continental congress
    • where 1st issue was economic boycott, radicals hid military
    • equipment
  89. April 1775
    British patrol Lexington search military goods, shot minutemen on bridge, Concord – people died both sides, shots heard round the world, turned people into radicals
  90. September 1775
    • 2nd continental congress, same representatives, new nation
    • was 1st issue, George Washington appointed general gathering troops, Thomas Jefferson wrote declaration of Independence (ideas from John Locke)
  91. 1776-1783 = victorious war
    French support in form of navy and money, other countries helped like Spain
  92. 1789 = Start of French Revolution
  93. 1610 = Henry Fourth who was French King passed Edict of Nantes – religious tolerance, he was assassinated
  94. 1614, General of States split into 3 houses
    1st Estate = Church

    2nd Estate = Aristocracy

    3rd Estate = Masses (Third estate was the largest – majority rule)
  95. 1614 = General of States meet to organize government, King was too young
  96. Louis Thirteenth was successor, Cardinal Richelieu ran government as prime minister in form of absolute monarchy where King has absolute power
  97. Louis Fourteenth = palace Versailles, gave no one power, Sun King, absolute monarch 1624-1660 power into 1715, biggest army
  98. Louis Fifteenth = French Indian war or Seven Years War, lost North America and India, aided American revolution, 1787 French treasury became broke
  99. Louis Sixteenth = 1787 food shortages and no funds, couldn’t commit, 1789 called general of states in Paris, issue was that taxes were high - other problems they thought were regional but actually similar
  100. Abbe Sieyes
    • member of 3rd Estate Masses, wrote ‘What is the 3rd
    • Estate?’, argued 3rd estate truly represent France, Louis didn’t do anything, June 21 Louis sent soldiers to lock up building, meet across the street and signed Tennis Court Oath – will not disband until written constitution, riots broke out in Paris, France
  101. July 14 1789 = mob meets Bastille where they thought political prisoners were in Jail there, France independence day
  102. 1789 = nobility unclear what to do, spread of violence peasants against nobility and clergy, reports on countryside attack on church
  103. August 2 1789 = 2nd and 3rd estate meet and surrender privileges (the nobility), Declaration of Rights of Man – commitment on Egalitarian or equal treatment under law, all adults right to vote, liberty to go and do what they want like move and start new life
  104. September 1789-1791 = constitutional monarchy, 3rd estate runs everything
  105. September 1791 = Louis Sixteenth brought to Paris
  106. September 1792 = Louis escapes but is arrested
  107. 753 members make up general estates, 136 Jacobins controlled by Maximillien Robespierre and was largest and organized
  108. Pillmits Agreements
    = signed by Austria and Prussia do whatever necessary to stop French revolution
  109. April 17 1792 = France declares war Austria and Prussia, no military organization, Danton Mass Warfare – outnumber troops, Austria and Prussia never invades
  110. 1792-1793 = Robespierre paranoids, trials and execution, guillotine favorite form of entertainment
  111. January 21 1793 = Louis sixteenth executed, countries had been supported of France (Britain, Spain and Portugal) but no longer because a king was killed, France at war with everybody
  112. Reign of terror was ruled by

  113. · 1794 = turned on Robespierre, blamed for terror and was executed July, vacuum of power, Napoleon Bonaparte comes to power
  114. Napoleon born 1789 in Corsica (Italian), French military school, became general quickly since most officers who were nobility left, shot cannons at mob
  115. 1795 = Napoleon great military leader, loved by France, brought stability, loved b French government
  116. 1796 = 3rd estate promotes Napoleon to field marshall and send him into Italy, Italian campaign – wins battle despite being outnumbered against Austrians and Italians
  117. 1798 = Napoleon is sent to Egypt who were allied with Britain wins with same success
  118. 1799 = Napoleon deserts his army returns to France leading own military coup, and teamed with Abbe Sieyes, wanted to be 1st council of France
  119. 1800 Bonaparte Wars with everybody success limited to land battles
  120. 1807 Alexander First has meeting Tilsit, Alexander First agrees Western Europe was Bonaparte and Eastern Europe was his in terms of land
  121. 1805 = Battle of Trafalgar naval battle against British (British admiral was Horatio Nelsor), Bonaparte loss (Britain had best navy)
  122. Britain was the last enemy, English channel prevented Bonaparte success
  123. 1807 Continental System meant to destroy Britain by economy b refusing to do business, foreign states had to choose who to support, Jefferson president U.S. refused to choose – Embargo Act = policy lead to economic depression eventually choosing Britain
  124. Russia could not afford to stop business with Britain under mining Tilsit Agreement (Continental System)
  125. 1812 Napoleon invades Russia a punitive expedition – to punish, Bonaparte splits from Moscow Russia, Alexander didn’t show up, spent months trying to leave
  126. March 1813 Napoleon’s enemies catch up and attacked Battle of Nations known as Battle Leipzig, napoleon lost, escapes to Paris is caught and arrested
  127. January 1514 Napoleon exiled to Elba Island 1st
  128. March 1814 = Napoleon escapes returns to France to an army waiting in Paris
  129. July 1815 Napoleon meet enemies Battle of Waterloo Belgium, British Wellington leads allies, Napoleon loses arrested and exiled to St. Helena Island until his death
  130. Napoleon brought ideas of revolution to those he fought, liberal revolutions broke out 19 century
  131. According to the declaration of Independence, King of Great Britain established absolute Tyranny over these states.