World History test 3 cards
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World History test 3 cards
world history test
world history test 3 cards
what throne did Alexander the Great inherit?
who was Alexander the greats father?
how did Philip II die?
he was attempting to attack Persia and was killed
what did Alexander the Great's empire consist of ?
Greece, Persia, and part of India
Who was Alexander the Great's favorite wife?
what happened to Alex's empire?
it divided since there was no male heir
Where did Chandragupta ask to form an empire and later overthrew the raja?
who was the friend/advisor of Chandragupta?
Who said "the enemy of my enemy is my friend"
What did Chandragupta do in retirement?
he became a Jain monk
Who was the grandson of Chandragupta?
Where did Ashoka Maurya conquer?
Kalinga "whatever it takes"
what did Ashoka Maurya become?
a dedicated pacifist, devout Buddhist
what empire followed the Mauryan empire?
the Gupta empire
What innovations came about during the Gupta empire?
concept of zero, number system spread to the west called "Arabic Numerals"
who was the Indian astronomer and mathematician who wrote that the Earth rotated around its axis and calculated the year as 365 days and also pi
what game was invented by the Gupta empire?
exports made by Gupta with Romans?
cotton, pearls, pepper
what caused tension in Caste system?
wealth of merchants
describe the physical setting of Greece
peninsula, mountainous, isolated valleys, no major rivers, transportation by water, less than 20% arable land,
2 major Greek cities?
Athens and Sparta
What are the 2 ancient civilizations of Greece?
Minoans and Mycenaeans
what part of Greece did the Minoans live in?
island of Crete
where did the Minoans live?
on the mainland
what were Minoans good at?
Sailing, prosperous because of trade network
what was unique about the Minoans?
peaceful hippy types, no city walls, women were treated as equals
what advancements did the Minoans have?
indoor plumbing, sewage, indoor heating and air
what sport did the Minoans create?
What was the language of the Minoans?
Describe the Mycenaens
less sophisticated than Minoans, individual cities ruled by kings, warrior culture
language of the Mycenaeans?
what happened after the fall of the Minoans and Mycenaeans?
they went backward culturally
what volcano caused a tsunami that caused problems for Crete and Minoans
what happened after the sea people showed up?
mixture of ethnic groups, writing emerged, greek literature written down
What is a pois (poleis)?
a city and its surrounding countryside, source for all greek identity
4 qualifications to be a citizen?
Adult, Male, Free, native
What were the 2 most important poeis?
Sparta and Athens
unusual military state, defeated neighboring polis
what happened to residents of countries defeated by Sparta?
they became helots (basically slaves)
how did Sparta prevent the uprising of helots?
focused on military
What did diarchy mean (Sparta)
ruled by 2 kings
what were Ephors?
5 annually elected men that helped run the city (like cabinet), and helped with day to day stuff
describe the Council of Elders?
(geriousa), 28 men, elected for life, over the age of 60
describe the government of Athens?
originally dominated by aristocrats, there was a farming crisis, debt slavery,
who was appointed to sort things out in Athens, he revised the law code and freed debt slaves?
what type of government was under Cleisthenes?
democracy- ruled by the people
What were the little units called that Cleisthenes divided the polis into?
DEMES (like precincts)
how was the legislative power under Cleisthenes?
council of 500. each deme chose representative by lot. they had a one year term and could serve twice
President of Council of 500?
presiding officer that rotated each day
who received all the authority in Athens under Cleisthenes?
the adult male citizens
what was the Council of 500's purpose?
who approved the laws that the Counil of 500 proposed?
what was the exception to the choice by lot?
how many strategoi were elected each year?
10 and they could be reelected
who was Pericles?
he encouraged educated citizens, original thinkers, and variety of interests
what was the 5th century called in Rome?
"the golden age"
who dominated the mid 5th century?
Pericles and Strategos
what caused the 1st persian war?
an Ionian revolt
who planned the invasion with the fleet that was destroyed by the storm?
what is the most important battle in greek history?
the Battle of Marathon
describe the Battle of Marathon
Persians outnumbered the Greeks, mostly Athenian, sent PHIDIPPIDES to Sparta, Greeks outmanuvered the Persians and won
what happened after the 1st Persian War?
Persians returned to their ships and sailed towards Athens, Phidippides went to Athens to warn them, Athens held off the Persians, Darius returned to Persia
who was the leader of the Persians in the 2nd Persian war?
what happened in the Battle of Thermopalye
300 Spartans and King Leodonis held off Persian while others went for reinforcements
what did the Persians do to Athens?
they burned it down and forced Athenians to evacuate
What Greek victory turned the tide of the war?
Battle of Salamis
what did Xerxes do during the Battle of Salamis
he watched from the shore but evacuated when he realized Persians were losing, he then abandoned the campaign
who was involved in the Peloponnesian war?
Sparta and allies vs. Athens and allies
what was the Delian League?
Athens would build ships, Treasury stored on island of Delos
Where was the treasury moved to after Delos?
Athens, became very rich and built Parthenon
who was the Athenian general who wrote an objective history of the war?
who won the Peloponnesian war?
Sparta, they then installed a pro- Spartan gov't
who was the father of Alexander the Great?
Philip of Macedon
Who was Alexander the Great's tutor?
where was Italy located?
Apennines run down spine,Alps barrier to the north
where were the Etruscan?
to the north
where were the Greek colonies?
south (magna graecia)
who do Romans believe originally ruled Rome?
7 Etruscan kings
why was Tarquin the Proud thrown out?
an incident with Roman aristocrat Lucretia
what power did the executive branch have in Rome?
veto powers, headed by 2 counsuls
what does "veto" mean?
describe the legislative branch?
unicameral- senate, senators held office for life, censors- kept track of gov't records
describe the Judicial system
had separate courts for civil and criminal law, appeals system, "innocent until proven guilty"
what were the 2 social classes in Rome?
Pleibians- poor, Patricians- rich
what was the 200 years of struggle between these social classes called?
Conflict of the Orders, Struggle of the Orders
what were the tribunes?
office created because Patricians dominated, spoke just for Plaebians
describe Roman expansion
took over all of Italy, always claimed wars were defensive, treated people well, inspired loyalty,
who was involved in the Punic Wars?
Rome and Carthage
what did Carthage control?
large empire on both sides of Mediterranean
what was the 1st Punic war fought over?
control of Sicily
where was Carthage?
what did the 1st Punic war cause Rome to do?
construct a navy
what was Corvus?
make fighting on sea more like fighting on land
what did Rome win in the 1st Persian war?
Sicily, Sardinnia, and Corsica
what did Alexander the Great focus on?
what is cosmopolitinism?
the world (cosmos) is my community (polis)
who led the 2nd Punic war?
what happened in the 2nd punic war?
Hannibal crossed the Alps with foor soldiers, calvary, and elephants. half the force and all but one elephant died
what happened at the Battle of Cannae?
Romans were caught by surprise, Rome's worst defeat
who was Scipio Africanus?
Roman General who launched attack on Africa forcing Hannibal to defend
what battle did Hannibal lose?
Battle of Zama
significant person in 3rd Punic War?
Cato the Elder
what does "Cartago Delenda Est" mean?
Carthage must be destroyed
who was Julius Caesar?
a Patrician,led roman forces in Gaul,conquered the barbarians, wrote best- selling book about his exploits
What did Julius Caesar cross after he was recalled from Gaul?
the Rubicon..then considered in revolt
when was Julius Caesar killed and what was it called
March 15, Ides of March (on Senate building)
who took over Rome after Julius Caesar?
what happened in the Battle of Actium?
Marc Antony and Cleopatra were defeated and commited suicide
what did Octavian become known as?
who was the 1st Roman emperor that used forms of old republic but dominated the gov't
what emperor passed power down through family?
describe the religion of Rome?
polytheistic, roman gods were equivalent to greek gods with different names
describe the mystery religions
religions of salvation with happy afterlife, began in eastern part of empire, exclusive
describe the cult of mithras
popular with soldier, all male, began in persia, sacrificed bulls and drank their blood
who did Jesus stand trial against?
statement of core beliefs of a religion. addresses issue of relationship of trinity
who was the emperor who persecuted non christians
which half of Rome actually collapsed?
which countries were Eastern Europe?
Greece, Turkey, Egypt
which countries were west Europe?
Spain, Italy, France, Germany, England, North Africa
describe East Europe?
more educated, more urban, wealthier, spoke Greek
describe West Europe?
more rural, less educated, spoke Latin
what happened to the Eastern half of Europe?
became Byzantine Empire with capital at Constantinople
who was the last empire of Rome?
who took over Rome?