World History test 3 cards

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World History test 3 cards
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  1. what throne did Alexander the Great inherit?
    Macedonia
  2. who was Alexander the greats father?
    Philip II
  3. how did Philip II die?
    he was attempting to attack Persia and was killed
  4. what did Alexander the Great's empire consist of ?
    Greece, Persia, and part of India
  5. Who was Alexander the Great's favorite wife?
    Roxanne
  6. what happened to Alex's empire?
    it divided since there was no male heir
  7. Where did Chandragupta ask to form an empire and later overthrew the raja?
    Magahda
  8. who was the friend/advisor of Chandragupta?
    Kautilya "Arthashastra"
  9. Who said "the enemy of my enemy is my friend"
    Kautilya "Arthashastra"
  10. What did Chandragupta do in retirement?
    he became a Jain monk
  11. Who was the grandson of Chandragupta?
    Ashoka Maurya
  12. Where did Ashoka Maurya conquer?
    Kalinga "whatever it takes"
  13. what did Ashoka Maurya become?
    a dedicated pacifist, devout Buddhist
  14. what empire followed the Mauryan empire?
    the Gupta empire
  15. What innovations came about during the Gupta empire?
    concept of zero, number system spread to the west called "Arabic Numerals"
  16. who was the Indian astronomer and mathematician who wrote that the Earth rotated around its axis and calculated the year as 365 days and also pi
    Aryabhatt
  17. what game was invented by the Gupta empire?
    chess
  18. exports made by Gupta with Romans?
    cotton, pearls, pepper
  19. what caused tension in Caste system?
    wealth of merchants
  20. describe the physical setting of Greece
    peninsula, mountainous, isolated valleys, no major rivers, transportation by water, less than 20% arable land,
  21. 2 major Greek cities?
    Athens and Sparta
  22. What are the 2 ancient civilizations of Greece?
    Minoans and Mycenaeans
  23. what part of Greece did the Minoans live in?
    island of Crete
  24. where did the Minoans live?
    on the mainland
  25. what were Minoans good at?
    Sailing, prosperous because of trade network
  26. what was unique about the Minoans?
    peaceful hippy types, no city walls, women were treated as equals
  27. what advancements did the Minoans have?
    indoor plumbing, sewage, indoor heating and air
  28. what sport did the Minoans create?
    bull jumping
  29. What was the language of the Minoans?
    Linear A
  30. Describe the Mycenaens
    less sophisticated than Minoans, individual cities ruled by kings, warrior culture
  31. language of the Mycenaeans?
    linear B
  32. what happened after the fall of the Minoans and Mycenaeans?
    they went backward culturally
  33. what volcano caused a tsunami that caused problems for Crete and Minoans
    Thera
  34. what happened after the sea people showed up?
    mixture of ethnic groups, writing emerged, greek literature written down
  35. What is a pois (poleis)?
    a city and its surrounding countryside, source for all greek identity
  36. 4 qualifications to be a citizen?
    Adult, Male, Free, native
  37. What were the 2 most important poeis?
    Sparta and Athens
  38. describe Sparta
    unusual military state, defeated neighboring polis
  39. what happened to residents of countries defeated by Sparta?
    they became helots (basically slaves)
  40. how did Sparta prevent the uprising of helots?
    focused on military
  41. What did diarchy mean (Sparta)
    ruled by 2 kings
  42. what were Ephors?
    5 annually elected men that helped run the city (like cabinet), and helped with day to day stuff
  43. describe the Council of Elders?
    (geriousa), 28 men, elected for life, over the age of 60
  44. describe the government of Athens?
    originally dominated by aristocrats, there was a farming crisis, debt slavery,
  45. who was appointed to sort things out in Athens, he revised the law code and freed debt slaves?
    SOLON
  46. what type of government was under Cleisthenes?
    democracy- ruled by the people
  47. What were the little units called that Cleisthenes divided the polis into?
    DEMES (like precincts)
  48. how was the legislative power under Cleisthenes?
    council of 500. each deme chose representative by lot. they had a one year term and could serve twice
  49. President of Council of 500?
    presiding officer that rotated each day
  50. who received all the authority in Athens under Cleisthenes?
    the adult male citizens
  51. what was the Council of 500's purpose?
    propose laws
  52. who approved the laws that the Counil of 500 proposed?
    the assembly
  53. what was the exception to the choice by lot?
    STRATEGOS
  54. how many strategoi were elected each year?
    10 and they could be reelected
  55. who was Pericles?
    he encouraged educated citizens, original thinkers, and variety of interests
  56. what was the 5th century called in Rome?
    "the golden age"
  57. who dominated the mid 5th century?
    Pericles and Strategos
  58. what caused the 1st persian war?
    an Ionian revolt
  59. who planned the invasion with the fleet that was destroyed by the storm?
    Darius
  60. what is the most important battle in greek history?
    the Battle of Marathon
  61. describe the Battle of Marathon
    Persians outnumbered the Greeks, mostly Athenian, sent PHIDIPPIDES to Sparta, Greeks outmanuvered the Persians and won
  62. what happened after the 1st Persian War?
    Persians returned to their ships and sailed towards Athens, Phidippides went to Athens to warn them, Athens held off the Persians, Darius returned to Persia
  63. who was the leader of the Persians in the 2nd Persian war?
    Xerxes
  64. what happened in the Battle of Thermopalye
    300 Spartans and King Leodonis held off Persian while others went for reinforcements
  65. what did the Persians do to Athens?
    they burned it down and forced Athenians to evacuate
  66. What Greek victory turned the tide of the war?
    Battle of Salamis
  67. what did Xerxes do during the Battle of Salamis
    he watched from the shore but evacuated when he realized Persians were losing, he then abandoned the campaign
  68. who was involved in the Peloponnesian war?
    Sparta and allies vs. Athens and allies
  69. what was the Delian League?
    Athens would build ships, Treasury stored on island of Delos
  70. Where was the treasury moved to after Delos?
    Athens, became very rich and built Parthenon
  71. who was the Athenian general who wrote an objective history of the war?
    Thucydides
  72. who won the Peloponnesian war?
    Sparta, they then installed a pro- Spartan gov't
  73. who was the father of Alexander the Great?
    Philip of Macedon
  74. Who was Alexander the Great's tutor?
    Aristotle
  75. where was Italy located?
    Apennines run down spine,Alps barrier to the north
  76. where were the Etruscan?
    to the north
  77. where were the Greek colonies?
    south (magna graecia)
  78. who do Romans believe originally ruled Rome?
    7 Etruscan kings
  79. why was Tarquin the Proud thrown out?
    an incident with Roman aristocrat Lucretia
  80. what power did the executive branch have in Rome?
    veto powers, headed by 2 counsuls
  81. what does "veto" mean?
    forbid
  82. describe the legislative branch?
    unicameral- senate, senators held office for life, censors- kept track of gov't records
  83. describe the Judicial system
    had separate courts for civil and criminal law, appeals system, "innocent until proven guilty"
  84. what were the 2 social classes in Rome?
    Pleibians- poor, Patricians- rich
  85. what was the 200 years of struggle between these social classes called?
    Conflict of the Orders, Struggle of the Orders
  86. what were the tribunes?
    office created because Patricians dominated, spoke just for Plaebians
  87. describe Roman expansion
    took over all of Italy, always claimed wars were defensive, treated people well, inspired loyalty,
  88. who was involved in the Punic Wars?
    Rome and Carthage
  89. what did Carthage control?
    large empire on both sides of Mediterranean
  90. what was the 1st Punic war fought over?
    control of Sicily
  91. where was Carthage?
    North Africa
  92. what did the 1st Punic war cause Rome to do?
    construct a navy
  93. what was Corvus?
    make fighting on sea more like fighting on land
  94. what did Rome win in the 1st Persian war?
    Sicily, Sardinnia, and Corsica
  95. what did Alexander the Great focus on?
    cosmopolitanism
  96. what is cosmopolitinism?
    the world (cosmos) is my community (polis)
  97. who led the 2nd Punic war?
    Hannibal
  98. what happened in the 2nd punic war?
    Hannibal crossed the Alps with foor soldiers, calvary, and elephants. half the force and all but one elephant died
  99. what happened at the Battle of Cannae?
    Romans were caught by surprise, Rome's worst defeat
  100. who was Scipio Africanus?
    Roman General who launched attack on Africa forcing Hannibal to defend
  101. what battle did Hannibal lose?
    Battle of Zama
  102. significant person in 3rd Punic War?
    Cato the Elder
  103. what does "Cartago Delenda Est" mean?
    Carthage must be destroyed
  104. who was Julius Caesar?
    a Patrician,led roman forces in Gaul,conquered the barbarians, wrote best- selling book about his exploits
  105. What did Julius Caesar cross after he was recalled from Gaul?
    the Rubicon..then considered in revolt
  106. when was Julius Caesar killed and what was it called
    March 15, Ides of March (on Senate building)
  107. who took over Rome after Julius Caesar?
    Octavian
  108. what happened in the Battle of Actium?
    Marc Antony and Cleopatra were defeated and commited suicide
  109. what did Octavian become known as?
    Augustus Caesar
  110. who was the 1st Roman emperor that used forms of old republic but dominated the gov't
    Augustus Caesar
  111. what emperor passed power down through family?
    Vespasian
  112. describe the religion of Rome?
    polytheistic, roman gods were equivalent to greek gods with different names
  113. jupiter
    zeus
  114. bacchus
    dionyssus
  115. Minerva
    Athena
  116. Venus
    Aphrodite
  117. describe the mystery religions
    religions of salvation with happy afterlife, began in eastern part of empire, exclusive
  118. describe the cult of mithras
    popular with soldier, all male, began in persia, sacrificed bulls and drank their blood
  119. who did Jesus stand trial against?
    Pontius Pilate
  120. Nicene Creed
    statement of core beliefs of a religion. addresses issue of relationship of trinity
  121. who was the emperor who persecuted non christians
    Theodosius
  122. which half of Rome actually collapsed?
    western half
  123. which countries were Eastern Europe?
    Greece, Turkey, Egypt
  124. which countries were west Europe?
    Spain, Italy, France, Germany, England, North Africa
  125. describe East Europe?
    more educated, more urban, wealthier, spoke Greek
  126. describe West Europe?
    more rural, less educated, spoke Latin
  127. what happened to the Eastern half of Europe?
    became Byzantine Empire with capital at Constantinople
  128. who was the last empire of Rome?
    Romulus Augustulus
  129. who took over Rome?
    Barbarians

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