Invertebrates(2)

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HappyJedi7
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144358
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Invertebrates(2)
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2012-03-28 02:49:03
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Bio 242
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  1. porifera
    • sponges
    • basal
    • lack true tissues
    • suspension feeders
    • choanocytes - engulf food particles; similarities between choanocytes and choanoflagellates
    • mesohyl separates cell layers - gas exchange and waste removal occur by diffusion
    • amoebocytes - everything, variety of functions
    • hermaphrodites
  2. cnidarians
    • true tissues
    • hydras, corals, jellies
    • diploblastic, radial
    • gastrovascular cavity
    • sessile polyp; motile medusa
    • cnidocytes contain cnidae (organelles); nematocysts - "stinging" cnidae
    • no brain, noncentralized nerve net
  3. lophotrochozoans
    • platyhelminthes
    • lophophores (ectoprocts and brachiopods)
    • molluscs
    • annelids
  4. platyhelminthes
    • flatworms
    • triploblastic
    • acoelomates
    • diffusion
    • protonephridia - network of tubules with flame bulbs; pull liquid through branched ducts to outside
    • free-living species - move by cilia; ganglia; predators, scavengers; move by cilia and mucus
    • parasitic species - tough covering and suckers; lots of reproductive organs; ex. tremadoes, tapeworms
  5. ectoprocts and brachiopod similarities:
    • u-shaped alimentary canal
    • absence of a distinct head
    • sessile
    • true coelom completely lined by mesoderm
  6. ectoprocts
    • bryozoans
    • colony encased in exoskeleton with pores
    • lophophores (cilia crown)
    • reef builders
  7. brachiopods
    • ex lamp shells
    • two halves of each shell are dorsal and ventral
    • marin
    • attached to seafloor by a stalk
  8. molluscs
    • majority are marine
    • all are soft-bodied
    • many secrete a protective shell of calcium carbonate
    • coelomates
    • trochophore - ciliated larval stage
    • 3 parts - foot, visceral mass, mantle
    • radula scrapes up food
    • chitons, gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods
  9. chitons (mollusca)
    • shell composed of eight dorsal plates
    • body itself is unsegmented
    • marine
  10. gastropods
    • developmental process known as torsion - visceral mass rotates 180 degrees, anus ends up above mouth
    • distinct head with eyes at the tips of tentacles
    • often leave a trail of slime
    • snails
  11. bivalves (mollusca)
    • aquatic
    • clams, oysters, mussels, scallops
    • hinged shell; powerful adductor muscles
    • no distinct head
    • no radula
    • suspension feeders
    • sedentary
  12. cephalopods (mollusca)
    • marine predators with tentacles and beak-like jaws
    • poison
    • foot --> excurrent siphon/part of tentacles
    • shell is generally reduced, internal, missing
    • chamber nautiluses - only living cephalopod with an external shell
    • complex brain
    • first - close circulatory system
  13. annelids
    • segmented worms
    • coelomates
    • polychates, oligochates
  14. polychaetes (annelida)
    • each segment has a pair of parapodia - has numerous chitae (chitin bristles), supplied with blood vessels and function as gills
    • mostly marine
    • many live in tubes
  15. oligochaetes (annelida)
    • sparse chaetae
    • earthworms - alimentary canal, soil, hermaphrodites or cross-fertilization
    • leeches - suck blood by attaching temporarily
  16. ecdysozoans
    • shed a tough external coat (cuticle)
    • molt (ecdysis)
    • nematodes, arthropods, chelicerates, myriapods, hexapoda, crustaceans
  17. nematoda
    • roundworms
    • tapering at ends
    • alimentary canal
    • lack a circulatory system
    • pseudocoelomate
    • muscles are longtitudinal; contraction produces a thrashing movement
    • play impt role in decomposition and nutrient recycling
    • humans are host to over 50 nematode parasites
  18. arthropods: origins
    • body plan - segmented body, hard exoskeleton, jointed appendages
    • segments tended to fuse together and became fewer
    • appendages became specialized for a variety of functions
    • two unusual hox genes, both of which influence segmentation
  19. arthropods: general characteristics
    • appendages (modified)
    • jointed and comes in pairs
    • cuticle
    • open circulatory system - hemolymph
    • coelomates (reduced coelom; hemocoel is main body cavity)
    • specialized gas exchange organs
    • chelicerates (arachnids), myriapods, hexapoda, curstaceans
  20. chelicerates
    • chelicerae (clawlike feeding appendages)
    • lack antennae
    • simple eyes
    • arachnids - the bulk of modern chelicerates
  21. arachnids
    • scorpions, spiders, ticks, mites
    • cephalothorax (6 pairs of appendages)
    • pedipalps - appendages that function in sensing, feeding, reproduction
    • gas exchange carried out by book lungs
  22. myriapods
    • terrestrial
    • pair of antennae
    • three pairs of appendages modified as mouth parts, mandibles
    • millipedes - herbivores, each segment has 2 pairs of legs
    • centipedes - carnivores, each segment has 2 pair of legs
  23. hexapoda (insects)
    • several complex organ systems
    • wings (evolved once in insect species) are extension of the cuticle
    • incomplete metamorphosis (grasshopper) vs complete metamorphosis (butterfly)
    • sexual reproduction, mate once
    • carriers of many diseases
    • consume enormous quantities of plant matter; play key roles as predators, parasites, and decomposers, an essential source of food for larger animals
  24. hypotheses for diversification of insects:
    • specialized feeding on gymnosperms and other carboniferous plants
    • evolutionary expansion of angiosperms
    • flight advantages - escape predators, find food and mates, disperse to new habitats
  25. crustaceans
    • highly specialized appendages
    • may have swimming larval stages
    • cuticle for diffusion or lungs
    • ex barnacles - sessile, extend appendages outward, cuticle hardened into shell
    • decapods - lobsters, crayfish, crabs, shrimp, etc
  26. echinoderms (deuterostomia)
    • slow moving or sessile, marine
    • thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of calcareous plates; prickly from skeletal bumps
    • typically radially symmetrical (not truly, disproved by madreporite of the water vascular system)
    • larvae have bilateral symmetry
    • water vascular system - branch into tube feet
  27. asteroidea (echinodermata)
    • sea stars - arms radiating form a central disk
    • underfaces bear tube feet
    • begin digestive process out of its own body
    • regenerative
    • tube feet - attach by combination of muscular and chemical action
    • sea daisies - armless, absorb nutrients though a membrane that surrounds their body
  28. ophuroidea (echinodermata)
    • brittle stars - long flexible arms
    • move primarily by lashing arms
    • use tube feet to grip substrates
    • some are suspension feeders, others are predators or scavengers
  29. echinoidea (echinodermata)
    • sea urchins and sand dollars
    • no arms
    • 5 rows of tube feet, slow movement
    • muscles that pivet their long spines
    • jaw-like structures
  30. crinoidea (echinodermata)
    • use arms in suspension feeding
    • sea lilies - live attached to a substrate by a stalk
    • feather stars - crawl about by using their long flexible arms
  31. holothuroidea (echinodermata)
    • sea cucumbers
    • lack spines
    • endoskeleton much reduced
    • bilaterally symmetrical (elongated in their oral-aboral axis)
    • five rows of tube feet
  32. chordates
    • mostly vertebrates
    • includes two subphyla of invertebrates: lancelets (cephalochordata) and tunicates (urochordata)
    • plus hagfishes (mynixi)
    • bilaterally symmetrical coelomates with segmented bodies

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