Africa test 4

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jenb72188
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14437
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Africa test 4
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2010-04-14 01:10:28
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Intro to Africa test 4
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African economy
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  1. Where are the poorer countries in Africa and why are they poorer?
    Sahel Horn

    Drought and war
  2. Describe the earliest economics.
    Hunting, fishing, food gathering

    Independent
  3. Advent of Europeans and affect on economy
    Brought slave trade and colonial economy

    • Slave trade: loss of productivity, widespread instability
    • Colonial partition: affected production destruction and consumption
  4. After independence, economies suffered from:___, ___, ___, ___, ___.
    • Limited infrastructure
    • Untrained human resources (literacy)
    • Lack of diversification
    • Inefficient use of state funds
    • Economic growth
  5. Substance agriculture: other names?
    Based on slash and burn technique

    • Shifting agriculture / cultivation
    • Land rotation
    • Bush fallow method
  6. Mineral resources, producers
    • Gold:
    • -South Africa (biggest)
    • -Zimbabwe
    • -Democratic Republic of Congo
    • -Ghana (about 75% of supply)
    • Diamond:
    • -South Africa
    • -Republic of Congo
    • Iron-ore:
    • -Everywhere
  7. Colleges/Universities set up by colonial regimes
    • Great Britain:
    • -Fourah Bay College in Sierra Leone (1827)
    • -University of Ibadan (1948)
    • -University of Makerere (1950)
    • -University of Science and Technology in Ghana (1951)
    • France:
    • -University of Algiers (1879)
    • Belgium:
    • -University of Rwanda-Burundi (1955)
    • -The State University at Elizabethville in the Democratic Republic of Congo (1956)
  8. African Institutions set up after independence
    • Nigeria: Universal Primary Education (1976)
    • -Gaurentees access to all Nigerians
    • -Gives basic skills in reading and writing
    • -Nigeria has over 30 colleges and universities
    • South Africa govt promises 10 years of free education to all south africans
  9. Industrialization
    • North Africa:
    • -Leader is Egypt
    • West Africa:
    • -Leaders are Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory Coast
    • -Industries: pottery, ceramics, basket weaving, carving, assembly plants
    • Central Africa:
    • -Leaders are Cameroun, Congo, Gabon
    • -Minerals
    • East Africa:
    • -Leader is Kenya
    • -Tourism, coffee, cotton, sisal
    • Southern Africa:
    • -Leaders are Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa
    • -Minerals
  10. Energy
    • Petroleum: Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Angola
    • Natural Gas: Algeria
    • Coal: Zimbabwe, South Africa
    • Hydro Electric power stations:
    • -Kainja Dam (Nigeria)
    • -Aswan High Dam (Egypt: Nile River)
    • -Kariba Dam (East Africa: Zambezi River)
    • -Volta Dam (Ghana)
    • -Caborra Bassa Dam (Mazambique, but used in South Africa)
  11. Internets impact
    • Attract Investment
    • Promote Tourism
    • Improve healthcare
    • Expand educational opportunities
    • Enhance communication
  12. Major environment issues
    • Deforestation
    • -Clearing land
    • -Lumbering
    • -Cutting trees
    • Desertification
    • -Overgrazing
    • -Drought
    • Soil Erosion
    • -Deforestation
    • -Oil Drilling
    • -Mining
  13. Countries that get income from wildlife tourism
    • Zimbabwe
    • Kenya
    • Botswana
    • Tanzania
    • South Africa
  14. Debt crisis
    • $227 billion
    • Currently showing signs of improvement
    • Creditors: International Monetary Fund, World Bank
    • Causes:
    • -Petroleum (OPEC) price hikes
    • -Periodic global recessions
    • -Reduced foreign aid
    • -Easy access to bank credit
    • -Excessive borrowing-high interest rates
    • -Decline in cash crops prices
  15. SAPS
    • Structural Adjustment Program
    • Called shock therapy because of hardships they produce
    • Requirements:
    • -Privatize the economy
    • -Eliminate subsides
    • -Devalue currencies
    • -Downsize the govt
    • Criticisms:
    • -Contribute to higher unemployment
    • -May lead to food riots
    • -Tend to ignore the human dimension of development
    • -Squeeze many people out of the middle class
    • -Tend to worsen the plight of the poor
  16. Public enterprises
    • Stat supported agencies
    • Exist to:
    • -Provide needed services
    • -Provide employment
    • -Protect certain areas of the economy from monopoly
  17. US Aid to Africa
    • 63% goes to Egypt
    • Other recipients:
    • -Kenya
    • -Democratic republic of congo
    • -Liberia
  18. New US aid policy
    • "Trade Not Aid"
    • Trade, investment, agriculture more beneficials than aid
  19. Urbanization reasons
    • Economic
    • Cultural
    • Social
    • Environmental
  20. Primate City
    • name of leading (largest) city of a country
    • high concentration of people
    • usually capital city
    • may contain up to 25% or more of country population
    • may be 3 times size of 2nd largest city
  21. 2 Largest Cities in Africa
    • Cairo (North Africa)
    • Johannesburg (South Africa)
  22. Nations that changed the name of their capital city
    • Mozambique: Lorenco Marques to Maputo
    • Zimbabwe: Salisbury to Harare
    • Chad: Fort Lamy to N'DJamena
    • Gambia: Bathurst to Banjul
  23. Nations that relocated their capital city
    • Morocco: Casablanca to Rabat
    • Cameroun: Douala to Yaounde
    • Tanzania: Dar Es Salaam to Dodoma
    • Nigeria: Lagos to Abuja
    • Ivory Coast: Abidjan to Yamoussoukro
  24. Informal economy
    • Many urban people unemployed live here
    • 40% or more of labor force is employed in informal sector
    • Characterized by:
    • -small scale enterprises
    • -self employment
    • -no labor unions
    • -pay no taxes
    • Lack of housing for urban poor in informal economy
    • -many liv in substandard housing, slums, squatter
    • -camps/settlements, shanty towns

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