between superficial fascia or underlying bones and skin
What innervates the facial expression mm's?
Facial nerve (VII)
What is the 2 parts of the occipitofrontalis?
paired occipitalis and frontalis muscles connected
where is occipitofrontalis
covers the top of the skull from the highest nuchal lines to the eyebrows
pulls the scalp back
raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead producing expression of surprise, fright and horror
orbicularis oculi location and action
elliptical muscles surrounding the orbital opening
closes the lids as in winking, blinking and sleeping
corrugator supercilii location and action
medial to the eyebrow
draw the eyebrose together producing a frowning expression
What are the muscles of the nose
procerus location and action
vertically on either side of the nose
pulls the skin of the nose upward, forming wrinkles over the bridge of the nose
transverse part or compressor naris
alara part or dilator naris
assists the dilator naris in dilating the nostril
What muscles raise and evert the upper lip and corner of the mouth? (sneering or snarling)
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
levator labii superioris
levator anguli oris
What muscles retract and raise the corner of the mouth? (grinning, smiling or laughing?
Zygomaticus major and minor
What does depressor labii inferioris and depressor anguli oris do?
depress the lower lip and corner of the mouth producing expression of doubt and sadness
(also assisted by mentalis)
depress the lower lip and corner of the mouth producing doubt and sadness.
It is the only mm that protrudes and everts the lower lip producing a pout.
obicularis oris location and action
surrounding the mouth
closes the lips and purses them for blowing
buccinator location and action
attached to alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible
compresses the cheek against the teeth preventing food from accumulating in the cheeks.
Muscles of the ear
auricularis anterior, superior and posterior
conects the auricle to the skull
fascia of the upper part of the thorax to the lower border of the mandible and lower lip
tightens the skin of the neck, draws down the lower lip and corner of the mouth prodcing a grimace and may assist in opening the mouth
What covers the parotid gland
parotid sheath - tough fibrous capsule from the investing layer of deep vercial fascia
Parotid gland location
anterior and slightly below the lower half of the ear
superficial, posterior and deep to the ramus of the mandible
extends from the zygomatic arch to the lower borderof the mandible
parotid duct function
secretes saliva into the oral cavity to facilitate mastication and swallowing.
Parotid duct location
passes horizontally from gland and crosses over the masseter and pierces the buccal fat pad and muscle.
enters the oral cavity through small opening near the 2nd upper molar.
What runs within the parotid gland?
facial nerve and branches
exertnal carotid artery
(from superficial to deep)
sensory innervation of the parotid glad
greater auricular nerve (branch of the cervical plexus; C2 & C3)
auriculotemproal nerve (branch of V3)
Parasympathetic innveration of parotid gland action?
produces a watery serous saliva
preganglionic cell bodies of parotid gland location?
brain stem (inferior salivatory nucleus)
ParaS Innervation of parotid gland path
leave the brain in a branch of gloccopharyngeal nerve -->through the middle ear (tympanic plexus), form the petrosal nerve -->travels to the otic ganglion. Synapse with postgnaglionc fibers then travel as part of the auriculotemproal nerve (branch of V3) to reach parotid gland.
Where does the preganglionic parasympathetic fivers synapse witht he postganglionic fibers of the parotid gland
in the otic ganglion
postganglionic fivers of the parasympathic parotid gland travel as part of what nerve?
auriculotemproal nerve (branch of V3)
Sympathetic innvervation of the parotid gland route
postganglionic fivers from the superior vervical ganglion give rise to the external carotid nerve plexus. Fibers followalong the artery to the gland.
sympathetic innvervation of parotid gland produces what?
activation produces a low volume enzyme rich saliva
Where does most of the arteries of the face branch from?
external carotid artery
Facial artery facts
branch of exernal carotid
palpable at the inferior border of the maxilla, anterior to the masseter
Pathway of the facial artery
from external carotid --> courses over the buccinator (giving off branches) heads toward the medial angle o the eye, terminates as the angular artery and anastomoses with branches of the opthalmic artery
Branches of facial artery
superior and inferior labial arteries
forms communication between the internal and external carotid arteries
superficial temporal artery path
terminal branch of external carotid artery
courses between the TMJ and ear
ascends up across the scalp to supply it.
transverse facial artery
branch of superficial temproal artery
courses across the face superficial to the masseter (inferior to the zygomatic arch)
gives off many smaller branches and anasomoses with branches of the facial artery
facial vein pathway
begins near the medial angle of the ye as the angular vein and communicates with the superior opthalmic vein. Also communicates with the pterygoid venous plexus via the anfraorbital and deep facial veins. Runs inferior and posterior in the face and drains into the internal jugular vein
What does the facial vein drain into?
internal jugular vein
What does the superior ophthalmic vein drain into?
major vein draining the face (scalp and forehead)
Superficial temproal vein pathway
Branches from the scalp and branches from around the zygomatic arch. Through the parotid gland. Joins the maxillary vein to form the retromandibular vein
Retromandibular vein formed by?
union of the maxillary evin and superficial temporal vein
Pathway of retromandibular vein
Descends through the parotid gland. Unites with the posterior auricular vein to form the external jugular vein
Problems with facial veins
no valves in any veins of the face so blood flows wherever. Numerous connects between facial and various veins.
Infections in the face can spread intracranially.
drain the lower lip and chin bilaterally
drain part of the orbit, the enternal nose, part of the cheek, upper lip, and part of the lower lip
pre-auricular and parotid nodes
drain most of the eyelids, part of the external nose, and part of the cheek
What nerve does the motor supply to the muscles of facial expression?
What are the branches of the facial nerve?
posterior auricular nerve
Facial nerve pathway
winds through the temporal bone and exits from the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Gives off the POST auricular nerve and run anteriorly through the paratoid gland where it branches.
Where do the terminal branches of the facial nerve appear?
at the margins of the parotid gland and fan out to supply the facial muscles
Common injuries to the facial nerve
Sensory portion of the trigeminal nerve branches? Sensory or motor?
V1 (ophthalmic division) - Sensory
V2 (maxillary division) - sensory
V3 (mandibular division) - sensory or motor
V1 branch nerve and supply?
supplies the subcutaneous tissue and skin of the forehead and scalp as far back as the vertex
the mucosa of the frontal sinus
where does the supraorbital nerve exit?
exits the skull through the supraorbital foramen/notch
What are the V2 branches?
Infraorbital nerve supply?
skin of the upper cheek, mucosa of the maxillary sinus, upper lip, most of the maxillary teeth and adjacent gums, lower lid, and lateral side of the nose
Where does the infraorbital nerve exit the skull?
through the infraorbital foramen
What does the zygomaticotemproal nerve supply?
small area of skin over the anterior part of the temple (hairless part)
supplies the skin over the zygomatic prominence
What are the nerves of V3?
auriculotemporal nerve (sensory)
Buccal nerve (Sensory)
Mental nerve (sensory)
mandibular nerve (motor)
Auriculotemoral nerve functions
supplies the TMJ, auricle and temporal region.
convey postganglionic parasympathetic secetomotor fibers for saliva production
passes through the parotid gland and encircles the middle meningeal artery
Buccal nerve path and supply
runs anteriorly over the buccinator muscle (BUT DOES NOT INNERVATE IT)
supplies a small area of skin and mucous membrane of the cheek
Mental nerve supply
the skin of the chin
skin and mucous membrane of the lower lip and gum
where does the mental nerve exit?
the mandible through the mental foramen
disorder of the sensory root of CN V
CN V3 motor root
innervates the muscles of mastication
(masseter, temporalis, MED and LAT pterygoid)
5 layer of tissue of the scalp
loose connective tissue
connective tissue of the scalp contents?
large blood vessels and nerves
blood vessels don't contract so there can be severe bleeding
what does the loose connective tissue contain?
the emissary veins
dangerous bc infection can spread from the scalp to the sinuses
Arterial supply of the scalp
External coratid arteries (occipital, POST auricular, superfical temporal)
Internal carotid arters (supratrochlear and supraorbital arteries)
Innervation of the scalp?
Trigeminal nerve - from the ear forward
Cervical cutaneous spinal nerve C2 & C3 - Posterior to the ear