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  1. What is Rhinitis?

    What are the causes (3)?

    What do the Seromucous or tubuloalveolar glands produce? (3)
    Rhinitis: inflammation of the nasal mucosa, runnynose, congestion.

    Causes: viruses, bacteria, allergens

    • Seromucous or tubuloalveolar glands produce:
    • • serous cells = lysozyme (enzymes)
    • • mucous cells = mucus
    • • basophils = histamine
  2. Define Sinusitis.

    What are the causes? (3)
    Sinusitis: inflammation of the respiratory mucosaof the paranasal sinuses.

    Causes: viruses, bacteria, fungus (mold)
  3. What is Pleurisy (pleural adhesions)?

    What are the causes? (2)
    Pleurisy: inflammation of the pleura, stabbing chest pain.

    • Causes: viruses, bacteria (pneumonia).
  4. What is Pleural effusion (fluid) and Pneumothorax (air)?

    What are the causes (2)?
    Accumulations in the pleural cavity = collapsed lung.

    Causes: infection, trauma
  5. What is Bronchial Asthma?

    Causes (3)?

    Treatments (3)?
    Bronchial Asthma: contraction of bronchial smooth muscle, bronchoconstriction, leukocytic inflammation.

    Causes: allergens, irritants, stress

    Treatment: smooth muscle relaxant, parasympathetic inhibitor, anti-inflammatory drugs.


    What % does Chronic Lung Disease occur in survivors?
    1) Exhaustion in newborn from lack of surfactant.

    2) Alveoli collapse during exhalation,inspiration is difficult.

    Cause: premature birth

    Chronic lung disease occurs in 66% of survivors
  7. What is Pneumonia?

    What does it result in? (3)

    What are the causes (3)?
    Infection of the lungs.

    Results in the inflammation, fluid in alveoli, and difficulty exchanging gases

    Causes: viruses, bacteria, fungus (mold)
  8. What is Tuberculosis?


    How's it spread?

    What happens to multiple tubercles?

    What happens to the bacteria?
    An immune response to infection-- causes nodules in lungs.

    Cause: the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis –

    Spread by coughing (person-to-person thru airborne droplets)

    Immune response contains bacteria in fibrous or calcifiednodules (tubercles) which replace alveoli

    Multiple tubercles become macroscopic (visible)

    Bacteria can survive and re-colonize (spreads rapidly)
  9. Tuberculosis accounts for:

    What % of deaths worldwide?

    In the US, how many cases per year?

    What groups of people contain the largest Tuberculosis carriers?
    6% worldwide.

    In the US, 25,000 cases per year.

    40% of new immigrants.
  10. What is Cystic Fibrosis (CF)?


    What are the results/consequences? (3)
    An over-production of mucus leading to bacterial infections.

    Cause: gene mutation

    • Results in:
    • 1) lysozyme from serous cells becomes in-activated
    • 2) Over-production of mucus from mucous cells
    • 3) Early death from respiratory infections
  11. What is ChronicObstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?

    What are the symptoms? (3)

    What is the major cause?

    What are two obstructive lung diseases as a result of COPD?
    Airflow in and out of lungs is obstructed

    • • Dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
    • • Coughing• Infections
    • • Respiratory failure

    Cause: almost all cases are from smoking.

    • Results in:
    • 1) Emphysema – damage to lungs
    • 2) Chronic bronchitis –airwayresistance
  12. 1) Emphysema

    What are the consequences of Emphysema? (5)

    What is the cause of death?
    • 1) Inflammation, increased macrophage activity
    • 2) Macrophages destroy alveoli
    • 3) Alveoli are replaced by fibrosis (scar tissue)
    • 4) Few alveoli and less elasticity = difficult breathing
    • 5) Damage to capillaries = vascular resistance = cardiomegaly

    Cause of death = pulmonary failure causing heart failure
  13. 2) Chronic (COPD); airway obstruction.

    What is the major cause?

    What are the consequences? (5)

    This obstructive disease is a trigger for what cancer?
    Major cause: smoking!

    • 1) Excess production of mucus
    • 2) Doubling of seromucous (tubuloalveolar) glands
    • 3) Fibrosis of mucosa, airway narrowing
    • 4) Infections occur in “stagnant pools” of mucus
    • 5) Coughing is persistent and productive

    A trigger for bronchial carcinoma
  14. Lung Tumors

    What is the major cause?

    95% of tumors arise from?

    Occurs between what age range?
    Major cause: smoking

    95% arise from Bronchial epithelium (bronchial carcinoma).

    Between age 55-65.
  15. What are 3 types of Lung Carcinomas?

    How is this disease preventable?
    • 1) squamous cell
    • 2) adenocarcinoma
    • 3) small cell

    Prevented by: NOT SMOKING!
Card Set
Respiratory Diseases
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