what antihypertensive has dopamine antagonistic effects?
2 endocrine disorders that can produce depression?
Ret oncogne is associated with what two thyroid cancers?
Ras oncogne is associated with what thyroid cancer?
What drugs inhibit the following enzymes?
5FU and MTX
Which eukaryotic polymerase replicates leading strand?
replicates mitochondrial polymerase?
What causes Bloom syndrome?
DNA repair defect
sensitivity to sunlight
what are structural motifs present in Transcription factors?
turn loop turn
Marker of osteoblast activity?
tartrate resistant acid phosphatase
Lymph drainage usually follows what?
What vitamin aids in recovery from measles, pneumonia or diarrhea?
What is the most common lung tumor in non smokers and women?
What is the gross morphology of a pilocytic astrocytoma?
cystic lesions and solid lesions
What are the 2 places where nicotinic receptors are found?
skeletal muscle and preganglionic synapses
Young woman + HTN?
Migraine +aura you should not give what?
When do Theca-Lutein Cysts occur?
when there is high beta HCG as in choriocarcinoma and molar pregnancies, twins or triplet pregnancies
SHiller Duval bodie are seen in what cancer?
Yolk sac Tumor
Prior C section increases the risk for what?
What causes the following breast pathology?
breast tumor in women under 25?
Most common breast mass in post menpausal women?
most common breast mass in premenopausal women?
most common form of breast cancer?
small mobiile firm mass with sharp edges?
histological leaf like projections
signet ring cells
loss of e-cadherin cell adhesion gene
always Estrogen + and Progesterone
commonly presents with nipple discharge
eczematous patches on nipple
multiple bilateral fluid filled lesions with diffuse pain
firm fibrous mass in a 55 year old man
invasive lobular insite
pagets suggestive of invasive ductal
What are the 2 major side effects of Pioglitazones?
Congestive heart failure in a susceptible patient
Vitteline duct gives rise to what?
Urachus(allontois remnant) gives rise to what?
Meckel's diverticulum or discharge of feces from umbilicus
discharge of urine from umbilicus
What enzyme is responsible for acute necrotizing pancreatitis?
What enzyme needs Riboflavin Vit B2?
Transmural vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis is characteristic of what vasculitis?
PAN never involves what structure?
MOA of Bisphosphonates?
pyrophosphate--component of hydroxyapetite
Which inhaled anesthetic has nephrotoxicity?
which IV anesthetic is proconvulsant?
What vitamin deficiency produces posterior column and spino-cerebellar demyelination?
What patients learn to squat to improve pulmonary blood flow and improve oxygenation?
RPGN are of 3 types, what diseases make them up?
type I-good pasture
type II--immune complex deposition
Type III-pauci immune..no complement deposition just crescents
What are the 7 titratabe amino acids with 3 protons?
Arginine gives rise to what 3 important products?
What is resposible for erection, emission, ejaculation?
ejaculation--visceral and somatic nerves
RET vs RAS?
What kind of fibers are responsible for the following?
1-pricking sharp pain
2-Burning or dull pain
3-Receptor for cold sensation
4-Receptor for warm sensation
5-Vibration and pressure
6-Dynamic/changing light, discriminatory touch
7-Static/changing light touch
8-Proprioception--muscle length monitoring
9-Proprioception-- Muscle tension monitoring
10-Resembles an onion in cross section
11- Robust spindle shaped found in soles of feet
12- Found only in areas of skin without hair
13-simplest sensory receptor for pain and thermoreception
14 Touch receptor that looks like melanocytes
15- Look like fried eggs under histologic staining
16- Forms multinucleated giant cells in HIV in CNS
8- muscle spindle
10 Pacinian corpuscle
11- ruffinin endings
13-free nerve endings
In the basal ganglia, what does the Direct pathway of Striatum do?
Globus pallidus Internal?
The following is associated with ?
presents at birth as floppy baby?
Dementia w/ frequent falls and syncope
dementia + visual hallucinations
dementia + personality changes or aphasia
Intranuclear inclusions called cowdry bodies caused by?
Eosinophilic rodlike inclusions in hippocampus of alzheimers?
Lewy bodies--parkinssons, lewy body dementia, alzeihemer
HSV and CMV
3 drugs for tonic-clonic seizures?
WHat opiod induces withdrawal with a full opiod agonist?
used in endoscopy
rapid anesthesia and short procedures
decreases blood flow
does not induce histamine release like morphine
high triglyceride content increases risk of pancreatitis
midazolam with fentanyl
What makes up SAM?
ATP + methionine
What 2 substrates inhibit Glucokinase? Promote
What 2 substrates inhibit pyruvate kinase? Promote
WHat 2 substrates inhibit Pyruvate dehydrogenase?
ATP/citrate- F-2,6 Bisphophate
ATP/alanine- F 1,6 Bisphosphate
What are the 4 ways of getting biliary stones?
too much cholesterol--estrogen
FIbrates via 7 alpha hydroxylase
Bile acid binding resins
too much bilirubin--hemolysis
infection with bacteria producing beta glucuronidase which breaks down conjugated bilirubin to unconjugated
In relation to ovarian and internal illiac vessels, where are the ureters?
Medial to the ovarian
Lateral to the internal illiac
Chronic alcoholics have a deficiency of what vitamin?
Ornithine transcarbamoylase is inherited how?
Precursor to 6-MP?
May prevent nephrotoxicity with mannitol diuresis
Antibody that binds to CD3 on T cells
Antibody that binds IL-2 on activated T cells
Inhibits Inosine Monophosphate dehydrogenase
Inhibits calcineurin --loss of IL-2
binds Fk protein --no IL-2
Binds FKBP-12---inhibition of mTOR
used for Lupus nephritis
metabolized by xanthine oxidase and allopurinol increases its toxicity
6MP and Azathioprine
Most common complication of cholelithasis?
Cholecystitis in the setting of cholelithiasis is caused by what?
outflow obstruction caused by the stones
Which of the hereditary hyperbilirubinemias are fatal in the 1st few years?
Crigler Naijar Type I--due to gluconoryl transferase
Which hereditary Hyperbilirubinemia causes a black liver?
What is the defect there?
no transporter molecule for bilirubin
Alpha toxin of C. Perfringens is a what type of an enzyme?
What ratio is increased in COPD?
What is the side effect of chronic topical corticosteroid use?
atrophy of connective tissue and muscle
2 Short acting insulins for Post-prandial Hyperglycemia?
What are the changes seen in ischemia to the brain parenchyma at
1st day--red neurons
2 days-- neutrophils
10 days--granulation tissue and neovascularization
12 weeks--collagen-glial scar--gliosis with astrocytes
Parts of the brain most susceptible to ischemia?
Short acting insulin?
Long acting insulin?
Reversible cell injury manifests itself how in the following organelles?
PM--blebbing, loss of microvilli, blunting
ER--dilation, detachment of polysomes, myelin figures present
Mitochondria--swelling, not vacuolization
Nucleus--disaggregation of elemetns
WHat g Proteins sitmulate acid secretion in the stomach?
Sucralfate requires what kind of environment to work?
acidic to polymerize
Biopsy of pt with esophagitis shows large pink intranuclear inclusions with host cell chromatin pushed to the edge of the nucleus?
Stomach biopsy shows neutrophils above the basement memebrane, loss of surface epithelium an fibrin containing purulent exudate?
Biopsy of parotid gland shows double layer of columnar epithelial cells resting on a dense lymphoid stroma?
Small intestine biopsy shows small lymphocytes with irregular nuclear contours and proliferation of them into the mucosa and epithelial glands?
Basal cell hyperplasia, eosinophilia and elongation of lamina propria see in the esophagus?
Goblet cells in the distal esophagus
Stomach biopsy shows lymphoid aggreagates in the lamina propria, columnar absorptive cells and atrophy of glandular structures?
Biopsy of esophagus shows enlarged cells and intranuclear cell inclusions?
Diffuse thickenin of gastric folds, high gastrin levels, biopsy shows glandular hyperplasia without foveolar hyperplasia?
Protrusion of mucosa in the upper esophagus?
biopsy of parotid gland shows both epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation?
Biopsy of a parotid gland shows carcinoma composed mostly of mucus secreting cells and also some squamous cells and intermediate hybrids of both?
pas stain showing hyphenated organisms in the esophagus wall?
Downs syndrome increases risk for what GI pathologies?
Drugs which lower seizure threshold?
What vitamin is alpha- tocopherol?
What vitamin decreases symptoms of Hypercholesterolemia Type IIb?
niacin--decreases VLDL and so there is less LDL
When a factor alters the study outcome but is itself not a bias it is called?
Insulin secretion is under the control of what adrenergic receptor?
Inhibited by what?
Which enterococci can grow in 6.5% NaCl and bile and which ones can only grow in NaCl?
enterococci facieum can grow in both
s. bovis can only grow in NaCl
Infection with which hepatitis virus produces a serum-sickness like reaction?
the Myc's code for what?
the ret, abl and erb code for what?
c-kit codes for what?
Chronic rejection differs how in the lung from the kidney?
lung---fibrosis of the airways--small called bronchiole obliterans
kidney--fibrosis and occlusion of the vasculature
Whats responsible for the following proteinurias?
functional-change in blood flow due to physical stress
selective--Minimal change disease
What HIV drug can cause seizure bc it chelates calcium and increases magnesium secretion?
Hypertension causes what kind of pathology in the brain?
Difference in the presentation of an ischemic stroke vs a hemorrhagic stroke?
ischemic stroke takes several hours to present
hemorrhagic stroke is instantaneous
WHat malignant hypertension drug decreases TPR and increases blood flow to kidney?
How do you measure variability, heterogeneity?
using Standard deviation
WHat causes Mitral valve prolapse?
What drugs increase the serum levels of Lithium?
Kallman syndrome presents how?
lack of secondary sexual characteristics due to low GnRH
Heteroplasmy presents with what kind of inherited disorders?
Drug for herpes infection that does not require viral phosphorylation?
WHat is the triad of Wernicke's encephalopathy?
retro and antero amnesia
Appearance of an abundant amoutn of seborheic keratosis is indicative of what?
Based on the location, how are Glioblastoma Multiforme, Meningioma and shwannoma different?
Glioblastoma Multiforme--in the cerebral hemisphere-necrosis and hemorrhage
Meningioma--surface of brain, continuous with dura
Adhesion molecules bind what?
Where is epo made?
endothelial cells of peri-tubular capillaries
How does Addisons disease produce eosinophilia?
cortisol normally suppresses eosinophils but in absence of cortisol you get eosinophilia
What hormones produce neutrophilia?
What protein kills parasites?
Major basic protein
Role of eosinophils in Hypersensitivity type I?
down regulat the reaction via histaminase and arylsulfatase which breaks down leukotrienes
What is the purpose of fever?
fever is high temp--which shift the oxygen dissociation curve to right..giving up oxygen which is used for the respiratory burst
What protein is important in granulation tissue?
Decreased hydroxylation does what to collagen?
weak triple helix bc you can't cross bridge
3 Miochondrial diseases?
MELAS---encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke
Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fiber
Lebiers hereditary neuropathy
What is most outcome of Hep C infection?
Stable chronic hepatitis
During embryological development there is 3 sets of veins, umbilical, vitelline, and cardinal..what becomes of them?
cardinal--all systemic veins
Hemorrhagic stroke in the basal ganglia is due to what?
Hemorrhagic stroke in the lobar hemispheres is due to what?
The following conditions result in what encephalopathy?
Carotid atherosclerosis/cardiac embolism
Cereberal amyloid angiopathy
Charcot Bouchard Aneurysm