Lab 8

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Lab 8
2012-03-28 14:24:47

Echinoderma, Hemichordata, Chordata
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  1. What is this?
    • Chordata
    • . . .Tunicata
    • . . . . .Ascidacea larva

  2. What is this?
    • Chordata
    • . . .Tunicata
    • . . . . .Appendicularia
    • . . . . . . . .Oikopleura

  3. What is this?
    • Echinozoa
    • . . .Echinoidea
    • . . . . .Sea Urchin

  4. What is this?
    • Echinoidea
    • . . .Clypeasteroida
    • . . . . .Echinarachnius parma

  5. What is this?
    • Holothuroidea
    • . . .Sea Cucumber

  6. What is this?
    • Eleuthozoa
    • . . .Asteroidea

  7. What is this?
    • Hemichordata
    • . . .Balanglossus

  8. What is this?
    • Ophiuroidea
    • . . .Brittle Star

  9. What is this?
    • Ophiuroidea
    • . . .Gongoncepahalus

  10. What is this?
    • Echinodermata
    • . . .Crinoidea
    • . . . . .Antedon

  11. What is this?
    • Echinoidea
    • . . .Sea Urchin
  12. ECHINODERMATA - 6,000 spp
    (Echinos, hedgehog; derma, skin)
    • Pentamerous symmetry
    • Marine and benthic
    • Water vascular system- functions in support of locomotory tube feet; important in gas exchange, excretion, and feeding
    • Body wall includes a thick connective tissue dermis where calcareous occicles (little bones) are present; the connective tissue is multiple, its consistency is under nervous control
    • Ossicles make up an endoskeleton, echinoderm = spiny skin
    • Loss of gill slits
  13. (Echinodermata) Crinoidea - 700 spp
    (Sea Lilies, Feater Stars)
    • Common body plan except sea lilies are attached to the bottom by a stalk; feather stars have no perminent attachment
    • Radially symmetrical, benthic, suspension feeders
    • Crinoids are oriented upside down in comparison with other echinoderms, with their oral urface uppermost
  14. Echinodermata (Crinoidea) Antedon (Sea Lily)
    • Juveniles are stalked and sessile, adults are capable of active swimming
    • During feeding, animal clings to rocks using jointed, aboral cirri while arms are fully extended using tube feet for food collection
    • The 5 ambulacral grooves radiate out from the mouth and extend along the middle of the arms
    • Arms bear pairs of pinnules
    • Mobile echinoderms
    • Oral surface faces substratum
    • Madreporite (controls entry of seawater into vascular system) and tube feet present
    • Polian vesicles on the ring canal
    • Movable spines
    • Includes all recent echinoderms except for sister taxon, Crinoidea
  16. (Eleutherozoa) Asteroidea
    (Sea Stars)
    • The ossicles of the body wall are rodlike and articulate via fibrous junctions to form a flexable grid
    • Repiration is with the tube feet and papulae (between ossicles)
    • Each arm has a pair of large pyloric ceca, gonads, and an eyespot at the tip
  17. Eleutherozoa (Asteroidea) Asterias forbesi (Sea Star)
    • 5 arms radiate from the central disk
    • Pale, lower side = oral surface
    • Dark, upper side = aboral surface
    • Madreporite and anus located on aboral surface
    • The mouth, surrounded by the thin peristomial membrane, and the stomach (found in the mouth) and the eye can be seen on the oral side of the animal
    • 5 deep ambulacral grooves raidiate outward from mouth
    • Includes Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea
    • All with closed ambulacra in which radial nerve is internalized and protected by ossicles
    • Defining traits: radial nerves are internalized in epineural canal
  19. Chyptosyringida (Ophiuroidea) Ophiderma brevispina
    • Arms sharply set off from the disk
    • They lack ambulacral grooves
    • Disctinct separation of the central disc and radial arms (how they differ from Asteroids)
    • Oral medreporite
    • Vertebral ossicles in arms
    • Arm-plate ossicles
    • Ophiopluteus larva
  20. Chyptosyringida (Ophiuroidea) Gorgoncepahalus
    (Basket Star)
    • Arms are used for climbing and attachment underwater
    • Arms can be flexed in any direction
    • Feed at night, usually on a right angle for maximum fishing efficiency
  21. Chyptosyringida Echinozoa
    (Sea Urchings, Sea Cucumbers)
    • Oral surface and ambulacra expanded aborally to cover most of the body (minus anus)
    • Ossicles form ring around pharynx
    • Ossicles in tube feet
    • Suckered tube feet
    • Well-developed hemal system with rete mirabile
  22. ECHINOIDA - 950 sp
    (Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars)
    • 2 shapes - spherical, regular (sea urchin) or disk shaped, irregular (sand dollar)
    • Test of fused ossicles
    • Two skeletal pores for each tube foot
    • Aristotles lantern - equiped with 5 long teeth used for scrapping food off hard substrates
    • Polian vesicles lost
    • Echinopluteus larva
  23. Echinozoa Echinoidea (Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis)
    (Green Sea Urchin)
    • Most of the surface bears articulates, movable spines
    • Spines can be moved in any desired direction, with an effective locking system that makes them impossible to move without breaking them first
    • 10 meridional rows of long, slender tube feet (or podia)
    • Most tube feet end in wide suckers, used for locomotion and respiration
    • Peristome - peri = around, stome = mouth
  24. CLYPEASTEROIA - Flattened Urchins
    (Sand Dollars and Sea Biscuits)
    • Adapted for living and moving in soft sediments
    • Irregular urchins, tend to be elongate and slightly streamlines along an axis perpendicular to the oral-aboral axis (to help move through soft sediments)
  25. Clypeasteroida Clypeaster rosaceus (Sea Biscuit), Echinarachinus parma (Sand Dollar)
    • Clypeaster rosaceus:
    • Thick body, not thin like a sand dollar
    • Uses short spines of its oral surface to pole its way across the sand
    • Suckered tube feet on aboral surface (holds debris on it for camoflauge)

    • Echinarachinus parma:
    • Tube feet involved in gas exchange, they are specialized gills with enhanced surface area, not used for locomotion, do not have suckers and are not tubular
    • Openings in shells are called lunnules
    • Much simpler Aristotles lantern than Urchins, 5 jaws holding 5 teeth, pyramids (doves)
  26. Echinodermata Holothuroidea
    • Minute ossicles in thick dermis
    • Body wall musculature in 5 longitudina bands
    • microphagus, retractable buccal podia
    • repiratory trees
  27. Echinodermata (Holothuroidea) Cucumaria frondosa
    (Sea Cucumber)
    • The oral end bears a mouth and a circle of ten branched tentacles, the buccal podia (introvert - can be fully retracted into the body)
    • Ventral surface has better developed tube feet, known as locomotory podia, for "creeping"
    (Acord Worms and Sea Angels)
    • Dorsal and ventral longitudincal nerve cords
    • Stomochord antagonizes contractile pericardium
    • Valved collar ducts
    • Muscular locomotory-secretory protosome
  29. Hemichordata (Enteropneusta) Balanoglossus
    Acorn Worm
    • Burrowing animals that live in mucous lines, U-shaped burrows in soft sand
    • Essentially sessile but can move to excrete waste out the hole of their burrow
    • Proboscis used todig new burrows
    • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord with open anterior neuropore
    • Notocord
    • Pharynx with endostyle
    • Ventral postoral heart
    • Fins
    • Cross-straited longitudinal muscles for swimming
  31. Chordata (Tuicata) Ascidiacea
    (Sea Squirts)
    • Tunic
    • Buccal tentacles
    • Heartbeat reveral
    • Neural gland ventral to the cerebral ganglion
    • Pyloric gland
    • Hermaphroditic
    • Tubular notocord with extracellular lumen
    • Bilateral cleavage
    • Determinate development
  32. Tunicata (Appendicularia) Oikopleura
    • Look like "tadpoles"
    • Keep their tale all their life
    • Only Tunicates to have all of the key chordate characteristics as adults
    • Secretes a house around itself that captures food as water is drawn through the system by tail lashingd