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What is the great merit of the encyclical?
defined the terms inwhich the moral problems spawned on by the industrialization of western society would henceforth be debated in catholic circles. Bringing forth Catholic social ethics.
what is his two fold thesis?
fusion of the premodern and modern traditions; sythesis only coexist only in an unesay tension with each other
What do we have to do to analyze property the current intellectual scene?
analize according to criteria set up by modern and premoderns
What are Roussesau's critics of modern society in Fortin?
creat small mindedness (one's mind is narrow, oriented toward material goods), bourgeois mediocrity (justifies mediocrity, nothing higher than pursuit of your own material world), lack of elevatioin. Thrown out is what truly means to be excellent
what are two systems that create injustices?
capitalism and socialism
what makes socialism and capitalism common bed fellows?
capitalism and socialism puts material goods at the center, both roeinted toward material well-being; two sides of the same liberal coin. Highest in us is that we are materially satisfied. Capitalism for one's freedom in one's economic destiny and socialism restricts but makes sure that material wealth is maintained
What is the strength of Rerum Novarum's attack?
make the argument thoelogical and reasonable, rather than romanticize it
What are three arguments taken from Aristotle that Aquinas uses to affirm private property?
- humans bestow greater care on things that belogn to them individually
- less confused than they tend to be when everyone is responsible for everything
- better chance of living at peace with on another if they know beforehand what belongs to whom
Old view of private property?
private property is not natural right according to premoderns; it is a relative good, not absolute right, always stood in context of community. St Augustine believed that it is a necessary evil, used to help maintain a certain level of peace, since we are fallen creatures
What is the purpose of ius gentium?
right of nations, a case agaisnst notion of private property as natural. Arguemnt is that private property is something that comes about in community that doesn't exist prior to community.
What is Rousseau's view of private property and common good?
property will always stand in the context of common good for Rousseau
What is Locke's role?
He comes close to saying that private property is sacred and inviolatable. In this way, it is very difficult to separate it or put restrictions on it. Claims that it stands in relation to other goods that needs to be addressed
Unlike the encyclical, an earlier tradition did not divorce what two concepts?
- just ownership and just use
- premoderns: use something in accordance with order of justice; duty and rights go hand in hand, no natural right as moderns talk about it; right to defend your life b/c first obligation is duty; right to defend comes out of duty
- moderns: you own it, it's yours to do whatever you want with it; civil right stand juxtapositioning to duty; right that triumphs the good; right to self-preservation
what are tow concerns of modern liberalism/
material goods and right over good
given sovereigntyof the self, how does common good fit into all this?
- moderns precludes the possibility of the common good; nothing outside of us
- old tradition is that we are subordinate to the common good; we cannot achieve the good without the common good.
What is Aquinas' saying regarding the common good?
subordinate yourself to something greater than yourself; new notion of sovereignty mutilates against the common good
How should we judge society
judge society based on its end, end of premoderns is to become excellentas human beings, judged as good. degree in which they do that, is the degree they will be judged good
The heart of modernism?
realism, lowering the end
what is the teleological and non-teleological point of view regarding common good?
- teleological: stresses duty (there is a telos, the attainment of which they find perfection and happiness) nontelological stresses rights, dneies that they are natural parts of a larger whole whose common good is superior to the private good.
- Moderns you have to submit to something greater, not going to happen in the culture that we live in
Why is modern liberalism paradoxical?
it prides itself on its abiilty to secure for each human being as much freedom as is compatible with everyone else's freedom, but it really pave the way for a new kind of tyranny, the tyranny of each indivual over every other individual
What is the problem in socialism according to rerum novarum?
- dneies our natural right to property
- denies our individuality, we have to have certain realms of freedom ad autonomy. we get absorbed in the greater context
- government control our means of production; what will be made and sold, the economic choices taken out of our hands
- denies the need for charity: for men and women to be generous with the gifts that they are given; no obligations to the poor; government takes care of it all
- working on poormne's envy of the rich (class warfare)
- denies that capacity to recieve fruits of your own labor out of your own property; can't have property, need to be under control of a larger vision
- increases enemity between rich and poor; poor in need of money, don't have power to bargin
What does Pope leo allow for the organiztion of?rn
labor unions to enure justice in terms of wages and working conditions and child labor
what are the church's obligation?rn
to heal the wounds that exist between the poor and the rich
Rousseau and Locke believed what about the poor? but what is really the case addressed by the pope?rn
in theory poor can choose to work or not work, to receive wages or not receive wages, but in reality, poor people don't have that power to make that choice, need to sustain their family and themselves (not really that free). Work is part of human condition. Poor cannot be forced to accept a wage that denies them the wage that allows them to live with a certain amount of dignity
What is the function of mediating institutions? rn
gather in common interests to check the political power of the state and government; we are losing more and more of these mediating powers
How ought christians live their lives?RN
publicly, live in public square, need to be vocal about injustices, organize unions to fight injustices under christian virtues
How is work importnat? RN
work is an important part of our human dignity; prior state of rectitude; dignity needs to be cultivated; we are fallen; working is part of human being, whatever made to sever that relationship made work a pain
what is the claim in Rerum N against utopian?
eradicting sin will create a perfect world. Need to face th efact that sin and suffering are part of human condition, you think it can be eradicated, you are setting up a worse sitation, produce more good than evil
who is the encylica written to? RN
men and women of good will, concerned about working conditions, concered about just wages, appeal to all reasonable men and women, don't have to be a person of faith to see that there are issues here that concern how we ought to live our lives
what is charity according to RN
comes out of direct experience of Christ's love for us, transcends monetary needs. States shold not be that organ that takes care of these social issues