cardiac meds

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Braddk1
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144428
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cardiac meds
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2012-04-01 19:18:17
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cardiac meds
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cardiac meds
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  1. These Drugs are what class?Plavix, effient, brilinta, ticlid, persantadine, pletal, integrillin, aggrastat
    antiplatlet agents
  2. What class is plavix?
    antiplatlet
  3. what class is effient
    antiplatlet
  4. what class is brilinta
    antiplatlet
  5. what class is ticlid
    antiplatlet
  6. what class is persantadine?
    antiplatlet
  7. what class is pletal
    antiplatlet
  8. what class is integrillin
    antiplatlet
  9. what class is aggrastat?
    antiplatlet
  10. what do antiplatlets do?
    prevent the aggregation of platlets
  11. What do anticoagulants do?
    • prevent clot formation by inhibiting clotting factors
    • therefore prevent thromboembolic events
  12. What is the main risk with anticoagulants
    BLEEDING
  13. What lab needs to be checked with heparin and what is the therapeutic level
    • ptt
    • 1.5-2.5 times the norm
    • normal is 30-40 secs
  14. what is the antidote for heparin
    protamine sulfate
  15. When giving heparin how do you give it and what should you do or not do?
    sq do not aspirate, massage, or rub the area of injection
  16. What drug class are these drugs
    LMWH
    lovenox
    fragmin
    anticoagulants
  17. what is lovenox
    an anticoag
  18. what is fragmin
    an anticoag
  19. what benefits do lovenox have over heparin?
    no frequent lab tests, it is more stable
  20. what is the heparin alternative for heparin induced thrombocytopenia
    refludan
  21. what drug class is coumadin and how is it administered
    oral anticoagulant
  22. what drug class is pradaxa and how is it given
    oral anticoagulant
  23. what drug class is xarelto and how is it given?
    oral anticoagulant
  24. what is the antidote for coumadin?
    Vitamin K
  25. what drug class comes from meds ending in ase
    and what do they do?
    • thrombolytics
    • clot buster
  26. tpa, activase, tnkase retavase, streptase, abbokinase are all what class of drugs?
    thrombolytics
  27. what labs should be monitered when on thrombolytics?
    pt, ptt, h&H platlet count
  28. what drug class is amicar
    antithrombolytic
  29. what drug class is trasylol
    antithrombolytic
  30. what drug class is desmopresin
    antithrombolytic
  31. what drug class is digoxin
    cardiac glycosides
  32. what is the action of cardiac glycosides or dig?
    • positive inotrope(increase the contraction of heart)
    • negative chronotropic effect (decrease hr)
    • negative dromotropic (slow conduction)
  33. what does inotrope mean
    increase or decrease in the force of contration
  34. what does chronotrope mean
    • chronotrope - increase or decrease in hr
    • think chrono time
  35. what does dromotrope mean?
    increase or decrease in conduction
  36. does dig increase or decrease stroke volume?
    increases
  37. dig
    • decreases jvd
    • increases coronary artery perfusion
    • promotes diuresis
    • helps with chf symptoms
  38. If a patient is on dig what do you need to assess?
    • b/p, pulse, heart sounds, breath sounds, weight I&O, ecg, renal function (creatnine, bun, uop) lfts
    • know that hypokalemia can contribute to dig toxicity
  39. what class of drugs are nitrates
    anti-anginals
  40. what do nitrates do
    • vasodialate
    • increase blood supply to heart
    • decrease preload, afterload and b/p
    • relax smooth muscle, helping with coronary artery spasms
  41. what is preload
    venous return to heart
  42. if you have a decreased preload what does that do
    • decreases volume and pressure to the heart
    • which decreases myocardial oxygen demand
  43. what is afterload
    • peripheral vascular resistance
    • the work the blood has to push against to get to the heart
    • so decreased after load is good
  44. how can nitrates be administered?
    oral, sublingual, iv, ointments, patches
  45. what are s/e of nitrates
    • h/a
    • tachycardia
    • postural hypotension
  46. what is nitro used for and what by what route can it be administered?
    anginal relief, iv, sl (tab or spray), topically or by patch
  47. nitro info
    large first pass effect
    q5 mins X3 doses
    iv dose titrated as long as sbp>90
  48. what kind of container should iv nitro be in
    glass bottle
  49. how long is nitro tabs good for?
    3 months
  50. how should nitro be applied
    non hairy part of body with gloves, remove old patches prior to placing new patch
  51. with nitro there should be a 8-12 nitrate free period each day to prevent tolerance, teach pt how to monitor hr and to keep a log
  52. when giving nitro asses for
    h/a, decreased b/p and dizziness
  53. beta blocker specific for beta 1 are called
    cardioselective
  54. beta blockers that are for beta 1 and 2 are
    non-specific
  55. what do cardioselective drugs do
    decrease hr, slow conduction and decrease 02 demand (by decreasing contractility
  56. what do the drugs end in that are beta blockers
    olol
  57. what do nonselective beta blocker do as well as cardioselective
    • in addition to decreasing hr, 02 demand and slowing conduction
    • it also constricts the bronchiole which can lead to sob
  58. when are beta blockers used?
    • angina to decrease 02 demand
    • mi as a cardioprotective measure
    • dysrhythmias slows conduction
  59. atenolol carvedolol and labetolol are used to treat
    hypertension and angina
  60. metoprolol is used to treat
    mi and hypertension
  61. propranonol is non selective
  62. sotalol
    nonselective used for ventricular dysrhythmias
  63. what class is cardizen
    ccb
  64. how can cardizem be administered and what does it do?
    • oral and parenteral , comes in sustained release,
    • affinity for conduction system so it slows the hr
  65. what drug class is verapamil
    ccb
  66. what does verapamil do and what are the forms of administration?
    • tx of angina
    • slows hr and conduction
    • oral and iv
  67. when giving verapamil iv what should be done
    give slowly because it can severely decrease b/p
  68. what is ranexa
    anti-anginal
  69. while taking anti-anginals patents should report
    • blurred vision
    • persistent hh/a
    • dry mouth
    • dizziness, fainting episodes
    • edema weight gain
    • p<60
    • dyspnea
  70. what do ace inhibitors end in?
    pril
  71. what do ace inhibitors do
    inhibit the raas, therefore preventing the vasoconstriction and sodium and water reabsoption
  72. what are the effects of ace inhibitors
    • decreased svr (afterload)
    • prevent sodium and water reabsorption helping chf
    • decreased preload (volume returning to heart)
  73. what lab values must be monitored closely while taking ace inhibitors
    • potassium because it causes potassium retention
    • renal funtion
    • drug must be discontinued with elevated potassium
  74. what are ace inhibitors used to treat
    hf and htxn
  75. what is minoxidil
    vasodilator
  76. what is apresoline
    vasodilater
  77. what is nipride
    vasodilater
  78. what do vasodilators do?
    direct acting arteriolar smooth muscle relaxants
  79. What do diuretics do
    • increase urine formation
    • remove Na+ and H2o
  80. what do diretics tx
    htxn and chf
  81. what are the actions of diuretics
    • arteriolar vasodilation
    • decrease volume
    • decrease co leading to decreased b/p
  82. what do cai's (carbonic anhydrase inhibitors )tx
    • used as a diuretic
    • altitude sickness
    • metabolic alkalosis
    • glacoma
  83. what do cai's do
    reabsorb NA+ and H2o and release h202
  84. what is diamox
    cai
  85. what is lasix
    loop diuretic
  86. what does lasix do?
    • loop of henley
    • decrease blood volume and decrease preload
    • rapid onset
  87. while taking lasix what electrolyte is has a potential to plummet
    K+
  88. what are umex, edecrine, demadex
    loop diuretics
  89. what do loop diuretics tx
    • chf
    • pulmonary edema
    • ascites
    • htxn
  90. while taking diuretics what kind of foods should you eat?
    • high in K+
    • strawberries
    • oranges
    • bannanas
    • fresh veggies
    • potatoes (especially the skin)
    • low in Na
  91. what vs do you need to monitor while taking diuretics
    b/p
  92. what assesments check fluid volume status
    • I & O's
    • skin turgor
    • mucous membranes
  93. what are signs of hypokalemia
    • muscle weakness
    • constipation
    • irregular pulse rate
    • lethargy
  94. wha are normal total cholesterol levels
    • >200
    • 200-229
  95. normal ldl
    • <100
    • 100-129
  96. hdl
  97. triglycerides
    • <150
    • 150-199
  98. should the goal ldl for someone with dad or diabetes be lower or higher than those without risk factors
    lower
  99. what is niacin
    • lipid lowering agent
    • inhibits triglyceride synthesis in liver
    • increased uric acid secretion

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