respiratory test.txt

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respiratory test.txt
2012-03-28 16:44:47

Biology - respiratory test
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  1. 4 processes that comprise respiration:
    • pulmonary respiration
    • external respiration
    • transport of respiration gases
    • internal respiration
  2. ventilation or breathing; movement of air into & out of lungs:
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • gas exchange (O2 loading & CO2 unloading) between blood & alveoli:
    • external respiration
  3. transport of O2 & CO2 between lungs & body tissues:
    transport of respiratory gases
  4. gas exchanges (O2 unloading & CO2 loading) between systemic blood & tissue cells:
    internal respiration
  5. site of gas exchange; includes respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts & alveoli:
    respiratory zone
  6. all other passageways of respiratory system; cleanse, warm & humidify incoming air:
    conducting zone
  7. mucosa-covered projections in walls of nasal cavity aid in trapping particles in air in mucus as air swirls through them:
    nasal conchae
  8. what bones are the paranasal sinuses located:
    • frontal
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
    • maxillary
  9. inflamed sinuses; can be caused by spread of infection from nasal mucosae:
  10. connects nasal cavity & mouth superiorly w/ larynx & esophagus:
  11. posterior to nasal cavity; continuous w/nasal cavity through internal nares; airpassageway; mucosa of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium:
  12. posterior to oral cavity; continuous w/oral cavity through fauces; extends from soft palate to epiglottis; air & food passageway; mucosa of stratifed squamous epithelium:
  13. posterior to epiglottis; extends to larynx; continuous w/esophagus posteriorly; air & food passageway; mucosa of stratified squamous epithelium
  14. superiorly attachs to hyoid bone & opens into laryngopharynx; provides a open airway; acts as switching mechanism to route food & air into appropriate passageways; houses vocal cords for speech production:
  15. flexible elastic cartilage extending from posterior aspect of tongue to thryoid cartilage; covered by mucosa w/scattered taste buds; tips to cover the laryngeal opening into the laryngopharynx
  16. vibrate from air moving up from lungs to produce sound; core formed from vocal ligaments surrounded by laryngeal mucosa:
    vocal folds
  17. inflammation of vocal folds; can be caused by overuse of voice, bacterial infection, dry air or tumors:
  18. involves intermittent release of expired air & opening and closing of glottis; intrinsic laryngeal muscles affect the length of the vocal folds & size of glottis; higher pitches from narrow glottis opening & tenser vocal folds:
    voice production
  19. layers of the tracheal wall:
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • trachealis muscle
    • carina
  20. extension of last tracheal cartilage; marks split of trachea into primary bronchi:
  21. right & left primary bronchi; secondary bronchi; tertiary bronchi; bronchioles:
    conducting zone
  22. terminal bronchioles; respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts; alveoli, alveolar sacs; respiratory membrane:
    respiratory zone
  23. concave despression in left lung to accomadate heart:
    cardiac notch
  24. left lung:
    2 lobes; is smaller than right
  25. right lung:
    3 lobes
  26. pyramid shaped tissue segments within each lung:
    bronchopulmonary segments
  27. small hexagonal subdivisions of bronchopulmonary segments:
  28. follows around lungs covering thoracic wall & superior face of diaphragm & lateral walls of mediastinum:
    parietal pleura
  29. covers external lung surface:
    visceral pleura
  30. fills pleural cavity:
    pleural fluid
  31. inflammation of pleura; often caused by pneumonia; less or more pleural fluid may be produced causing friction during breathing (less) or increases pressure (more):
  32. low pressure, high volume; pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to the heart:
    pulmonary circulation
  33. high pressure, low volume; pulmonary veins carry most venous blood back to the heart:
    systemic circulation
  34. pressure exerted by the air surrounding the body:
    atmospheric pressure; 760- mm Hg at sea level
  35. when you inhale; is less than atmospheric pressure:
    negative respiratory pressure
  36. when you exhale; is greater than atmospheric pressure:
    positive respiratory pressure
  37. after inhalation or exhalation; is equal:
    zero respiratory pressure
  38. pressure in the alveli; fluctuates w/breathing; always eventually equals with atmospheric pressure:
    intrapulmonary pressure
  39. pressure in the pleural cavity; fluctuates w/breathing; always a negative pressure:
    intrapleural pressure
  40. physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation:
    • airway resistance
    • alveolar surfact tension
    • lung compliance
  41. amount of air inhaled & exhaled w/each breath:
    TV; tidal volume
  42. amount of air that can be inhaled beyond the tidal inhalation:
    IRV; inspiratory reserve volume
  43. amount of air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal expiration:
    ERV; expiratory reserve volume
  44. amount of air left in the lung beyond the expiratory reserve volume:
    RV; residual volume
  45. sum of the tidal volume, IRV & ERV:
    VC; vital capacity