Extra Unit: Gallbladder and Biliary Ducts

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nenyabrooke
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144446
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Extra Unit: Gallbladder and Biliary Ducts
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2012-05-06 19:38:55
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Radiographic Procedures II
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Extra Unit: Gallbladder and Biliary Ducts
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  1. what is the average weight of the adult human liver?
    3-5 pounds
  2. which abdominal quadrant contains the gallbladder?
    right upper quadrant (epigastrium)
  3. what is the name of the soft tissue structure that separates the right from the left lobe of the liver?
    falciform ligament
  4. which lobe of the liver is larger, the right or left?
    right
  5. list the other two lobes of the liver (in addition to right and left lobes):
    • quadrate lobe
    • caudate lobe
  6. how many functions does the liver perform?
    over 100
  7. the average healthy adult liver produces _________ of bile per day.
    • 1-3 pints per day
    • 1/2 - 1 1/2 L per day
    • 1 quart per day
  8. list the three primary functions of the gallbladder:
    • store bile
    • concentrate bile
    • contract when stimulated
  9. what is the name of the hormone that causes the gallbladder to contract?
    cholecystokinin (CCK)
  10. cholecystokinin (CCK) is secreted by the:
    duodenal papilla
  11. what is something that typically may lead to gallstones?
    concentrated levels of cholesterol in bile
  12. what is a common site for impaction, or lodging of gallstones?
    duodenal papilla
  13. an older term for the main pancreatic duct is the:
    duct of Wirsung
  14. the gallbladder is located more (posteriorly or anteriorly) within the abdomen?
    anteriorly
  15. what is the liver's primary location within the abdomen?
    to the right of the mid-sagittal plane
  16. on an asthenic patient, where is the gallbladder located within the abdomen?
    near the mid sagittal plane
  17. on a hypersthenic patient, where is the gallbladder located within the abdomen?
    to the right of the mid-sagittal plane
  18. on a hyposthenic patient, whereas the gallbladder located within the abdomen?
    to the right of the midsagittal plane
  19. what position should the patient be placed in if the primary purpose is to drain the gallbladder into the duct system?
    supine (especially RPO)
  20. which projection (AP or PA) would place the gallbladder closest to the image receptor for the best visualization?
    PA
  21. which radiographic oblique position will project the gallbladder away from the spine?
    LAO (20°-25°, ave)
  22. the prefix chole refers to:
    relationship with bile (bile)
  23. the prefix cycsto refers to:
    bag or sac (bladder)
  24. radiographic examination of the gallbladder is called:
    cholecystogram
  25. radiographic examination of the biliary ducts is called:
    cholangiogram
  26. radiographic examination of both the gallbladder and biliary ducts is called:
    cholecystocholangiogram
  27. the acronym OCG refers to:
    oral cholecystogram
  28. oral types of contrast media designed to visualize the gallbladder are termed:
    cholecystopagues (telepaque, most often)
  29. list the three biliary functions measured during an OCG:
    • the functional ability of the liver to remove the contrast from the bloodstream and secrete it along with bile
    • the patency and condition of the biliary ducts
    • the concentrating and contracting ability of the gallbladder
  30. what are four contraindications for an OCG?
    • advanced hepatorenal disease
    • active GI disease
    • pregnancy
    • hypersensitivity to iodine-containing contrast agents
  31. true or false. most gallstones contain enough calcium to be at least minimally visualized on a plain abdomen radiograph.
    • false
    • only 15%
  32. chronic _____________ is usually associated with gallstones.
    cholecystitis
  33. true or false. the evening meal before an OCG should contain a slight amount of fat.
    • false
    • slight fat in meals 1-2 days before, no fat the evening prior
  34. how many hours before an OCG should the contrast tablets be taken?
    10 to 12 hours
  35. what is the purpose of the fatty meal or CCK study?
    to cause the gallbladder to contract (by stimulating the release of CCK)
  36. name a procedure that may be performed during a postoperative (T-tube) cholangiogram
    removal of a biliary stone
  37. why is a chest x-ray commonly ordered following a PTC?
    to check for a pneumothorax
  38. how is the contrast media introduced during a ERCP?
    direct injection through a catheter placed during an endoscopic process
  39. how is the contrast media introduced during a PTC?
    direct injection by needle
  40. how is the contrast media introduced during a T-tube cholangiogram?
    direct injection through drainage tube puncture
  41. how is the contrast media introduced during an immediate cholangiogram?
    direct injection through catheter during surgery
  42. how is the contrast media introduced during an OCG?
    oral ingestion
  43. how is the contrast media introduced during a cholecystosonography?
    no contrast media required
  44. the gallbladder is usually found on the sthenic patient at the level of:
    L2
  45. centering for a PA scout projection on a hypersthenic patient is usually _____________ as compared with a sthenic patient.
    higher and more lateral
  46. which oblique position will project the gallbladder away from the spine?
    LAO
  47. which two possible positions during an OCG will stratify any possible gallstones?
    • PA erect
    • right lateral decubitus
  48. the gallbladder is located in the _____________ -margin of the liver.
    anterior inferior
  49. what is another name for the pancreatic duct?
    Duct of Wirsung
  50. what is the fundus of the gallbladder?
    the broadest portion
  51. what is the enlarged chamber in the distal aspect of the common bile duct?
    hepatopancreatic ampulla
  52. a series of mucosal folds in the cystic duct:
    spiral valve
  53. what type of tissue makes up the hepatopancreatic sphincter?
    circular muscle
  54. what makes up a protrusion into the duodenum?
    duodenal papilla
  55. what is the duct connected directly to the gallbladder?
    cystic duct
  56. what part of the gallbladder makes up the neck?
    the narrowest portion
  57. what part of the gallbladder makes up the body?
    the middle aspect
  58. what type of needle is most often used for a PTC?
    a skinny needle (chiba needle)
  59. which of the following studies is considered an invasive procedure?

    A. OCG
    B. Sonography of the gallbladder
    C. PTC
    D. CT of the gallbladder
    C. PTC
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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