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2012-03-28 19:23:54

Biology DAT 6
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  1. What do endocrine glands do?
    secrete hormones into the circulatory system
  2. What do exocrine glands do?
    secrete substances that are transported by ducts
  3. Where are the adrenal glands?
    On top of the kidneys
  4. What do the adrenal glands consist of?
    • Adrenal Cortex
    • Adrenal Medulla
  5. What does the adrenal cortex secrete?
    • corticosteroids
    • 1. glucocorticoids
    • 2. mineralocorticoids
    • 3. cortical sex hormones
  6. What do glucocorticoids do?
    • raise blood glucose levels
    • ex. cortisol
  7. What are mineralocorticoids and what do they do?
    they regulate extracellular water volume through sodium regulation. An example is aldosterone
  8. What does the adrenal medulla secrete?
    epinephrine and norepinephrine (derived from catecholamines)
  9. What does epinephrine do?
    • increases conversion of glycogen to glucose
    • increase heart rate
    • increase blood supply to skeletal system
  10. What stimulates the production of glucocorticoids?
    adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland
  11. What is another name for the pituitary gland?
  12. What 7 hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary?
    • growth hormone
    • prolactin
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
    • remember FLAT PiG
  13. What is the overproduction of GH in adults called?
  14. What stimulates milk production and secretion in females?
  15. What two hormones are released and stored by the posterior pituitary?
    • oxytocin
    • ADH
  16. What does oxytocin do?
    increases the strength and frequency of uterine muscle contractions
  17. What does antidiuretic hormone do?
    promotes water reabsorption
  18. Why are thyroid hormones important?
    They are necessary for growth and neurological development in children and increase the rate of metabolism
  19. What is hypothyroidism called in newborn infants?
  20. What is the physical manifestation of hyperthyroidism?
    a goiter
  21. What does calcitonin do?
    TONes down the Calcium concentration
  22. How does glucagon differ from insulin?
    Glucagon increases blood glucose levels while insulin lowers blood glucose levels
  23. What does underproduction of insulin lead to?
    diabetes mellitus (hyperglycemia)
  24. What does the parathyroid gland do?
    raises the calcium concentration through bone resorption
  25. What hormone does the kidney produce and what does it do?
    • Renin: stimulates the cortex to release aldosterone.
    • Aldosterone: Increases sodium resorption
  26. What hormone stimulates HCL secretion in the stomach?
  27. What hormone is released due to acidic food entering the small intestines?
    • secretin
    • cholecystokinin when fats enter the small intestines
  28. What hormone is thought to be the wonder drug (especially for the regulation of circadian rythyms)
  29. What type of hormones act via secondary messengers?
  30. What type of hormones can enter the nucleus when bound to a receptor protein?