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What do endocrine glands do?
secrete hormones into the circulatory system
What do exocrine glands do?
secrete substances that are transported by ducts
Where are the adrenal glands?
On top of the kidneys
What do the adrenal glands consist of?
- Adrenal Cortex
- Adrenal Medulla
What does the adrenal cortex secrete?
- 1. glucocorticoids
- 2. mineralocorticoids
- 3. cortical sex hormones
What do glucocorticoids do?
- raise blood glucose levels
- ex. cortisol
What are mineralocorticoids and what do they do?
they regulate extracellular water volume through sodium regulation. An example is aldosterone
What does the adrenal medulla secrete?
epinephrine and norepinephrine (derived from catecholamines)
What does epinephrine do?
- increases conversion of glycogen to glucose
- increase heart rate
- increase blood supply to skeletal system
What stimulates the production of glucocorticoids?
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland
What is another name for the pituitary gland?
What 7 hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary?
- growth hormone
- adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
- luteinizing hormone (LH)
- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
- melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
- remember FLAT PiG
What is the overproduction of GH in adults called?
What stimulates milk production and secretion in females?
What two hormones are released and stored by the posterior pituitary?
What does oxytocin do?
increases the strength and frequency of uterine muscle contractions
What does antidiuretic hormone do?
promotes water reabsorption
Why are thyroid hormones important?
They are necessary for growth and neurological development in children and increase the rate of metabolism
What is hypothyroidism called in newborn infants?
What is the physical manifestation of hyperthyroidism?
What does calcitonin do?
TONes down the Calcium concentration
How does glucagon differ from insulin?
Glucagon increases blood glucose levels while insulin lowers blood glucose levels
What does underproduction of insulin lead to?
diabetes mellitus (hyperglycemia)
What does the parathyroid gland do?
raises the calcium concentration through bone resorption
What hormone does the kidney produce and what does it do?
- Renin: stimulates the cortex to release aldosterone.
- Aldosterone: Increases sodium resorption
What hormone stimulates HCL secretion in the stomach?
What hormone is released due to acidic food entering the small intestines?
- cholecystokinin when fats enter the small intestines
What hormone is thought to be the wonder drug (especially for the regulation of circadian rythyms)
What type of hormones act via secondary messengers?
What type of hormones can enter the nucleus when bound to a receptor protein?
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