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What is the functional unit of the nervous system?
What else is the cell body known as?
What two cells produce myelin and where are they located?
- Oligodendrocytes in the CNS
- Schwann cells in the PNS
What are the gaps between the myelin sheaths called?
nodes of Ranvier
What is the typical resting membrane potential?
Is the concentration of K+ higher inside or outside the neuron?
The Na/K pump has what ratio?
3 Na out for every 2 K in
How is an action potential generated?
depolarization of a cell
Which voltage gated channel opens in response to depolarization?
Na followed by K
What factors contribute the the speed of an action potential?
- diameter of the axon
What are effector cells?
Neurons that communicate with cells in muscles or glands rather than another neuron
When an action potential reaches the end of the axon, what is released into the synapse?
How are neurotransmitters removed from the synapse?
- by a protein
- degraded by enzymes (acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine)
- diffusion out of the synapse
Which type of invertebrate does not have an organized nervous system?
Which type of invertebrate uses a nerve net?
What are the three types of neurons in the vertebrate system?
- sensory (afferent)
- motor (efferent)
What are bundles of axons called?
What is a network of nerve fibers called?
What is a cluster of neuronal cell bodies called?
- Ganglia in periphery
- Nuclei in the CNS
What is the forebrain also known as?
Presencephalon, which consists of the telencephalon and the diencephalon
What is the midbrain also know as?
Mesencephalon, which is a relay center for visual and auditory impulses
What is the hindbrain also known as?
Rhombencephalon, which consists of the cerebellum, the pons, and the medulla oblongata
How does sensory information enter/exit the spinal cord?
Through the dorsal horn/ventral horn
What are the two divisions of the PNS?
- somatic: voluntary movement
- autonomic: involuntary movement
What is the white of the eye called?
What helps supply the retina with blood
Cones can absorb what three colors?
red, green, and blue
What jellylike liquid fills the eye?
What is nearsightedness?
Myopia: image focused in front of the retina
What is farsightedness?
hyperopia: image is focused behind the retina
What are the three bones in the ear and what are they known as?
- known as ossicles