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the volume of gas that can be taken into the lungs in a full
inhalation, starting from the resting inspiratory position; equal to the
tidal volume plus the inspiratory reserve volume.
the volume of gas that can be expelled from the lungs from a position
of full inspiration, with no limit to duration of inspiration; equal to
inspiratory capacity plus expiratory reserve volume.
the amount of gas contained in the lung at the end of a maximal inhalation.
total lung capacity
portions of the resp passageways where air remains and does not take part in gas exchange in the lungs
anatomical dead space areas
nose, pahrynx, larynx, trachew, bronchi, broncioles
Where alveolar dead space is located
alveoli and respiratory zone
anatomic + alveolar dead space
Total dead space
Major types of hypoxia
anemic, ischemic, histotoxic and hypoxemic
how are oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in the blood
plasma and hemoglobin
- (slow) bound to hemoglobin
- (fast)binds to iron as biocarbonate
- buffering system in blood
Describe the carbonic acid-biocarbonate buffer system in the blood
- In the bicarbonate buffer system the chemical equilibrium between
- carbonic acid and bicarbonate act as a pH regulator. If the H+
- concentration in blood begins to fall (that is if the pH rises), more
- carbonic acid dissociates , replenishing hydrogen ions. When
- H+concentration begins to rise (pH drops), the bicarbonate ion acts as a
- base and removes the excess hydrogen ions.
Where are the control centers for breathing located in the brain
- Medullary Center-- basic rhythm
- Pons--modify activity of nedullary neurons
Causes of COPD
enlargement of alveoli and destruction of alveolar walls
Causes of Tuberculosis
The bacterium Mycobacteruim tuberculosis
- Spread Airborne by coughing
- 12 month course of antibiotics