105 Test 3

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105 Test 3
2012-03-28 22:11:08
105 Test

105 Test 3
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  1. What is the action of Dimetane?
    Dimetane is given orally to relieve rhinitis. (Antihistimines block the H1 receptors that produce histamine.)
  2. What are the side effects of Benadryl?
    drowsiness, sedation, blurred vision, tachycardia
  3. What causes rebound nasal congestion?
    Using nasal decongestants for more than 3-5 days.
  4. The patient is instructed to do what activity after Mucomyst is administered?
    coughing & postural drainage exercises
  5. What mmechanism do opiates use for their anti-tussive action?
    They inhibit cough reflex center in the medulla of the brain.
  6. What is the drug classification of Claritin?
    (Focus on non-sedating anti-histamine action.)

    given orally to relieve rhinitis, does not make patient drowy
  7. What is the drug, chromolyn sodium inhaler used for?
    Inhibits mast cells. Does not bronchodilate. Given by inhaler. CONTROL DRUG FOR ASTHMA
  8. List the sequence of steps for using a multidose respiratory inhaler.
    • 1. use a spacer divice to keep inhaler one and one-half inches away from the mouth
    • 2. seal mouth on mouth piece
    • 3. breathe deeply once
    • 4. activate the inhaler
    • 5. continue breathing in for 5 seconds
    • 6. hold breath minimum of 10 seconds (or as long as possible)
    • 7. breathe out slowly
    • 8. wait two minutes between doses if second dose is ordered
  9. What is the purpose of a spacer device on an inhaler?
    keeps inhaler 1 and 1/2 inches away from mouth
  10. A patient needs to gargle with water and spit out the water after using Azmacort inhaler to prevent what from occurring?
    This is to prevent fungal infection in the mouth & throat.
  11. If taking both at the same time, which should be used first, a reliever inhaler or a controller inhaler? Which meds are reliever drugs for asthma? Which meds are controller meds for asthma?
    If reliever & controller inhalers are ordered, take the bronchodilator inhaler first.

    • Controller Drugs for Asthma:
    • Corticosteroids
    • --Beclomthasone (Vanceril)
    • --triamcinolone (Azmacort)
    • Nonsteroidal:
    • --cromolyn (Intal)
    • Leukotrine Modifiers
    • --montelukast (Singulair)
    • --zafirlukast (Accolate)

    • Reliever Drugs for Asthma:
    • Selective Beta 2 Bronchodilators
    • --albuterol (Proventil)
    • --metaproterenol (Alupent)
    • --terbutaline (Brethine)
    • --salmeterol (Serevent)
    • Non Selective Beta Adrenergic Bronchodilators
    • --Theophylline and xanthines
    • --aminophylline
    • Glucocorticoids
    • --prednisone (Deltasone)
    • --ipratropium (Atrovent)
  12. Which meds are selective Beta-2 bronchodilators?
    • albuterol (proventil)
    • terbutaline (brethine)
    • salmeterol (serevent)
  13. Which bronchodilator inhaler acts for 12 hours?
    salmeterol (serevent)
  14. What is the onset time for terbutaline by injection?
    15 minutes
  15. What is the action of Prednisone in the treatment of asthma?
    Glucocorticoids - prevent the immune system response to antigens and prevent bronchoconstriction.

    Prednisone (Deltasone) - if patient requires long term glucocorticoids, given oral 20 mg or less every other day to prevent patients own adrenal gland from stopping production of cortisone
  16. What is the therapeutic serum theophylline level so that time released capsules can be given?
    10-20 mcg/ml serum
  17. The drug aminophylline alleviates what respiratory symptoms?
    • Long-term control of reversible airway obstruction caused by asthma or COPD

    • Increases diaphragmatic contractilityUnlabelled Use(s): Respiratory and myocardial stimulant in premature infant apnea (apnea of prematurity)

    from davis drug guide
  18. The drug aminophylline is administered how most commonly?
    Usually given IV infusion through IV rate control pump (need second IV site - incompatible in IV line with other meds.
  19. What are the side effects of Prednisone? Why should Prednisone not be stopped suddenly?
    • -cause elevation in serum glucose
    • -cause overproduction of gastrin & can cause development of gastric ulcers

    can't stop abruptly (reduce gradually to prevent severe glucose and BP changes)
  20. Surfactant is given to prevent what occurrence in the lung?
    to prevent respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease in newborns)

    collapse of tine airsacs in lung from deficiency of surfactant
  21. What are the causes of hypofunction of glands which requires replacement hormones be given?
    cancer, congenital absent gland, infection, pituitary insufficiency, surgical removal of gland, radiation
  22. What is the normal body mechanism that regulates hormone secretion?
    Negative Feedback System
  23. What is the protocol followed when beginning to give Synthroid?
    (Focus on small dose initially & gradual increase in dosage.)

    • 50 mcg as single dose initially
    • may be increased every 2-3 weeks by 25 mcg/day
    • usual maintenance dose = 75-125 mcg/day (1.5mcg/kg/day)
  24. What is the desired outcome of giving the hormone replacement drug, Synthroid?
    (Focus on restoration of normal hormone levels.)
  25. How is the pulse effected if a patient receives too much Synthroid?
    tachycardia (according to Davis Drug Guide)
  26. What is the action of Propacil?
    • blocks synthesis peripherally of T3, T4
    • inhibits organification of iodine (antithyroid)
  27. What are the toxic effects of Tapazole or Propacil?
    Tapazole -- sore throat, fever rash, leukopenia, (monitor CBC)

    Propacil -- stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, mild rash/itching, headache (from WebMD)
  28. What are the sleeping precautions for 48 hours for someone who has received radioactive iodide (I-131) treatment for hyperthyroidism?
    sleep alone and avoid embracing or close contact with others
  29. What drug is given for acute tetany?
    give calcium chloride or calcium gluconate IV.
  30. What is the action of Fosamax?
    slow bone loss & increase bone density
  31. What is the correct way to administer Miacalcin?
    given nasal spray (alternate nostrils with each dose)
  32. Why is replacement hormone, cortisone, prescribed: 2/3 dose in the AM and 1/3 dose in the PM?
    to refrain from disturbing sleep (circadian cycle)
  33. What is the action of Aldactone?
    given oral to block action of aldosterone
  34. Oral contraceptive drugs provide birth control by suppressing what function?
    given oral to stop ovulation
  35. What is the action of Histerelin and why is it given in hyperfunction of the anterior pituitary?
    Given parenterally until puberty to block gonadotropin production & prevent premature sexual development in children
  36. What is the desired growth when a child is given Humatrope?
    (HGH) Humatrope given SubQ 3 times/week to promote one inch growth every 6 months in 2-13 years
  37. When a petient has SIADH, what drug blocks the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on the kidneys?
  38. What is the action of Glucotrol?
    increase beta cell activity in pancreas to release the already formed insulin into circulation

    increase the insulin cell receptor responsiveness
  39. What is the action of Glucophage?
    lowers blood glucose by increasing the receptiveness for insulin on the peripheral insulin receptor sites
  40. What does the term U100 on the insulin vial mean?
    there are 100 units in one milliliter
  41. How is cloudy insulin suspension properly mixed before administering to a patient?
    rotate or gently roll the bottle, do not shake (this will cause bubbles to draw up in syringe)
  42. Why are insulin injection sites rotated?
    prevents development of fatty tissue fibrosis
  43. Why is the sequence of drawing regular and intermediate acting insulins into the same syringe not varied?
    (Focus on maintaining consistent onset times.)

    withdraw first from short acting, then from long acting
  44. What does insulin peak mean?
    time it takes to have greatest ability for lowering glucose
  45. What is the onset time for R Humulin
    30 minutes
  46. What is the duration time for U Humulin?
    36 hours
  47. What is the peak action time of NPH insulin when hypoglycemic reaction might occur?
    LP says 8 hours (humulin N)
  48. What are the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia?
    headache, dizziness, difficulty problem solving, restlessness, hunger, tachycardia, cold & clammy skin, sweating, decreasing LOC, seizure, coma
  49. What behaviors by the patient cause episodes of hypoglycemia?
    Too much insulin, too little food (missed meals), insulin peak activity and too little food, increased exercise with the same food and insulin, decreased food absorption (vomiting, diarrhea)
  50. What behaviors by the patient cause episodes of hyperglycemia?
    Excessive food intake

    omitting oral hypoglycemic meds

    taking corticosteroids or total parenteral nutrition which is 25% glucose
  51. Humalog (onset, peak, duration)

    Is it clear or cloudy?

    Can you mix it with other insulins?
    • Humalog
    • Onset: 5 min
    • Peak: 30 min
    • Duration: 4 hours
    • Clear
    • Can Mix
  52. Humulin R (onset, peak, duration)
    Is it clear or cloudy?
    Can you mix it with other insulins?
    Humulin R

    • Onset: 30 min
    • Peak: 4 hr
    • Duration: 7hr
    • clear
    • can mix
  53. Humulin U (onset, peak, duration)
    Is it clear or cloudy?
    Can you mix it with other insulins?
    Humulin U

    • Onset: 2 hours
    • Peak: 18 hours
    • Duration: 36 hours
    • Cloudy
    • Can Mix
  54. Lantus (onset, peak, duration)
    Is it clear or cloudy?
    Can you mix it with other insulins?

    • Onset: 2 hours
    • Peak: none
    • Duration: 24 hours
    • Clear
    • Cannot Mix
  55. Levemir (onset, peak, duration)
    Is it clear or cloudy?
    Can you mix it with other insulins?

    • Onset: prolonged
    • Peak: 8 hours
    • Duration: 24 hours
    • Clear
    • Cannot Mix