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end of cambrian, extinction of dinosaurs K/T Boundary
late cretaceous, continents started breaking apart
triassic, synapsid to mammal evolution- Thrinaxodon
ecological niches left vacant by extinct taxa, molecular data suggest many mammal lineages had already evolved by the end of the cretaceous , but mammalian fossils are rare
tertiary pilocene, global cooling of climate, north and south america joined by isthmus of panama
most individuals of a species are wiped out and a few survive
Pleistocene epoch in quaternary peiod, 4 major ice ages
bering land bridge
major intercontinetal migrations of animals and of plants, allowed alaska and siberia to be connected and animals were able to pass from one continent to the other
holocene in pleistocene
10 KYA, modern period since last ice age
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