The Basis of Life

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Valoren
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The Basis of Life
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2012-03-28 23:26:26
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The Basis of Life
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  1. Gametophyte
    Are 1N and regenerate sexually in plants
  2. Sporophyte
    Gametes unite in plnats to form sphorophytes which are 2N, regenerate asexually
  3. Heterotrophs
    organisms that lacked the ability to synthesize their own nutrients and required preformed molecules
  4. The seas contained...
    simple organic and inorganic molecules such as salt, methane, hydrogen, ammonia and water
  5. Energy was present in the form of...
    heat, electricity and solar radiation
  6. Standy L. Miller demonstrated that...
    by mixing ultraviolet radiation and/or heat to a mixture of methane, hydrogen, amonia and water you could make complex organic compounds such as acetic acid, lactic acid and urea
  7. Coacervate droplets are...
    a cluster of colloid protein molecules surrownded by a water shell that are able to absorb substances from the environment and eventually evolved to the first primitive cell
  8. primitive cells cointain...
    nucleic acid polymers and become capable of reproduction
  9. Autotrophs
    self-feeding, they produce their own food, the produce complex organic compounds
  10. Heterotrophs and biological pathways
    heterotrophs slowly evolved biological pathways that allowed them to use a wide variety of nutrients...they evolved anarobic respiration to convert nutrients into energy
  11. Photosynthetic pathways
    capture solar energy and use it to synthesize carbonhydrates from carbondioxide and water
  12. Autotrophs changed the outmosphere from
    reducing to oxidizing
  13. Autotrophic anaerobes(bacteria)
    organisms that produce their own food without the need for oxygen
  14. Autotrophic aerobes(green plants, photoplankton)
    organisms that need oxygen to produce their own food
  15. Heterotrophic anaerobes (yeast)
    organisms that lack the ability to synthesize their own nutrients, they can grow even if oxygen is absent
  16. Heterotrophic aerobes (Humans)
    organisms that need oxygen in order to survive
  17. Protoplasm
    substance of life that contains minerals such as iron, calcium, magnesium, iodine, etc
  18. All living things are composed of...
    hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, solfur, phosphorous
  19. Atom is a unit of a...
    element
  20. Molecule is a unit of a...
    compound
  21. Inorganic compounds do not have...
    carbon
  22. inorganic compound examples....
    salt and HCL
  23. Organic compounds contain...
    carbon
  24. organic compound examples
    carbonhydrates, lipids and nucleic acids
  25. Cell Theory
    • 1. All living things are composed of cells.
    • 2. The cell is the basic functional unit of life.
    • 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
    • 4. Cells carry the genetic information in the form of DNA that is transmited from parent to daughter cell.
  26. Magnification
    Increases the apparent size of an object
  27. Resolution
    Differentiate two objects that are close to one another
  28. Diaphragm
    controls how much light passes through the speciment
  29. Coarse Adjustment knob
    roughly focuses the image
  30. Fine adjustment knob
    sharply focuses the image
  31. Phase Contrast Microscopy
    A type of light microscopy that permits the study of the cell without killing the speciment
  32. Electron Microscopy
    uses a beam of electrons (dead speciment)
  33. Dentrifugation
    A technique that is used to seperate a mixture of cells without destroying them
  34. Organelles include...
    nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, vacuoles, lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplast and centrioles
  35. Cell Membrane(Plama Membrane)-what it does and what it is made up of?
    It is made up of a phospholipid bilayer that has proteins embended in it. It encloses the cell and exhibits selective permeability.
  36. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) allows what kind of molecules to pass through....
    It allows small non polar molecules such as oxygen and small polar molecules such as water. It allows proteins and libids to move in freely. Small charged molecules pass through the protein channels where as large molecules cross the membrane with the help of carrier proteins.
  37. Carrier proteins...
    Proteins that carry some large charged molecules across the membrane
  38. Nucleus
    Controlls cell activities including cell division and contains DNA
  39. Nucleolus
    Is a dense structure of nucleus where ribosomal RNA synthesis takes place
  40. Ribosome
    are the site where proteins are synthesized by the nucleolus
  41. E.R
    a network of membranes that forms an enclosed space that is involved in the transport of materials throughout the cell.
  42. Golgi Apparatus
    Recieves packages and their content from the smotth E.R and modifies them and repackages them into cesocles and distributes them to the cell surface by exocytosis
  43. Mitochondria
    Are the sites of aerobic respiration, the suppliers of energy, the power house of the cell
  44. Cytoplasm
    Place where most of the cell metabolic activity occurs
  45. Vacule and Vesicles
    Are membrane bound sacs involved in the storage and transport of materials
  46. Centrioles
    are specialized microtubules involved in spindle organization during cell division
  47. Lysosomes
    Membrane bound vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that are involved in intracellular digestion
  48. Cytosceleton
    made up of microtubules and microfilaments, give the cell mechanical support, maintain its shape and cunctions in cell motility
  49. Simple diffusion
    Involves the movement of molecules down the concentraion gradient from a region of high concentration to low without the use of energy and without the use of carrier molecules
  50. Osmosis
    the movement of water molecules from region of lower solute concentration to regions of higher solute concentrations
  51. Hypertonic
    water flows out of the cell into the higher concentration of the medium (cell shrinks)
  52. Hypotonic
    Water flows into the cell where the concentration is higher (cell grows)
  53. Isotonic
    concentration inside and outside of cell are the same (cell doesn't change)
  54. Facilitated diffusion (passive transport)
    movement of molecules down the concentration gradient through special channels or via carrier molecules. (uses carrier proteins)
  55. Active transport
    the movement of molecules against their concentration gradiend with the help of transport proteins and the use of energy (use carrier molecules)
  56. Circulation
    is the transport of materials within the cell and throughout the body of a multicellular organism
  57. Intracellula circulation methods
    • 1. Brownian Movement
    • 2. Cyclosis or Streaming
    • 3. E. R
  58. Brownian Movement
    The movement of particles due to kinetic energy spreads small suspended particles throughout the cytoplam of the cell
  59. Cyclosis or Streaming
    This is the circular motion of cytoplasm around the cell trasport molecules
  60. E.R circulation
    provides channels through the cytoplasm and provide a passageway from the plasma membrane to the nuclear membrane
  61. Extracellular Circulation
    • 1. Diffusion
    • 2. Circulatory System
  62. Diffusion
    Transports food and oxygen from the environment to the cells when the cells are in direct contact with the environment
  63. Circulatory System
    Uses vessesls to transport fluids and a pump to drive the circulation in animals whore cells are too far from the external environment
  64. Enzymes are...
    Proteins
  65. Enzyme effects...?
    • 1. increase the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy.
    • 2. Are not changed or consumed in the reaction
    • 3. Do not change the equilibrioum of the reaction (G)
  66. Lock and Key Theory
    active site is complementary to the substrate
  67. Inducced fit theory
    when the appropriate substrate comes in contacct with the active site, the active site changes its shape to fit the substrate
  68. Most enzyme activities are reversible
    yes but not all
  69. Enzymes are effected by...
    • 1. pH (most active at pH 7 except pepsin which prefers pH 2)
    • 2. Temperature (40 C)
    • 3. Concentration of enzyme and substrate
  70. Enzyme and subtrate effects on rate of reaction
    The rate of reaction increases with an increase in substrate until it finally reaches Vmax which is the maximum enzyme that are present
  71. Lactase
    Hydrolizes lactose into glucose and galactose
  72. Proteases
    degrates proteins to amino acids
  73. Lipases
    break down lipids to fatty acids and glycerol
  74. Coenzymes
    are enzymes that require non protein molecules called cofactors to become active
  75. Respiration
    breaks the C-H bonds of glucose to release energy in a oxidation reaction. This energy is used to make phosphate bonds in ATP
  76. Dehydrogenation
    Removing high energy hydrogen atoms from organic molecules
  77. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
    is used to harnest the energy from hydrocarbon bonds
  78. Glycolosis
    uses 2 ATP molecules to break down a glucose molecule into two molecules of pyruvate and produces 4 ATP and 2 NADH for a netgain of 2 ATP
  79. Anaerobic-absence of oxygen
  80. Aerobic
    presence of oxygen
  81. Fermentation
    Uses NAD+ as an electron acceptor in the absence of oxygen to reduce pyruvate into ethanol and lactic acit
  82. Alcohol Fermentation
    Occurs in yeast cells and some bacteria and it reduces pyruvate to regenerate NAD+
  83. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    occurs in human muscles when oxygen is absent
  84. Cellular Respiration
    Is a aerobic catabolic pathway that is used to harvest energy that is stored in glucose
  85. Pyruvate Decarboxylation
    Pyruvate formed during glycolosis is transfered to the mitochndria where it loses CO2 and the acetyl group that remains is transfered to coenzyme A to produce acety CoA
  86. Citric Acid Cycle / Kreb Cycle
    the two carbon acetyl from acetyl CoA bind to a four carbon molecule (oxalocetate) to form citrate.
  87. Citric Acid Cycle / Kreb Cycle forms what?
    • 2 ATP
    • 6 NADH
    • 2 FADH2
  88. How does ETC make ATP
    It transferes high energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen and the energy that is released during this proces in harnest and used to make ATP
  89. Cytochromes
    are most of the molecules that make up the ETC
  90. Substrate level phosphorylation produces how many ATP
    4
  91. Oxidative phosphorylation produces how many ATP?
    32
  92. Cellular Respiration Produces how many ATP?
    36
  93. Glycogen is stored where?
    In the liver
  94. disacchorides are converted into monosaccharides which can be converted into glucose
    true
  95. Fats ----form stored?
    ----Broken down to what and by what?
    -
    Fats are stored in the form of tryglycerites and are broken down by lipase intro fatty acids
  96. What yeilds the greates ATP in cellular respiration
    Fats
  97. What must proteins undergo before being used by the body
    proteins must undergo transformation reaction before being degraded by the body
  98. What does the body prefer to use and in what order
    carbonhydrates, fats, proteins
  99. Chemosynthesis
    It is a proces by which bacteria obtain energy to produce organic materials
  100. CALVIN CYCLE
    3 carbon molecules are added to 3 5-carbon molecules called RuBP to form 6 molecules of 3-GPA and then 9 molecules are used to boost the energy of those molecules. Each cycle forms one G3P molecules and two G3P molecules put together makes a glucose.
  101. CALVIN CYCLE uses what to make what
    use 9 ATP and 6 NADPH to make one G3P molecule, two G3P molecules make a glucose molecule

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