Chapter 6
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Positional notation
a system used in roman numerals whereby the position of the numeral signifies its mathematic value

denominator
the bottom or right number in a fraction

numerator
the top or left number in a fraction

Reciprocals
two different fractions that equal 1 when multiplied together

least common denominator
smallest possible denominator for an equivalent fraction so that two fractions can be added or subtracted and have the same denominator

Significant figure (significant digit)
is a figure that is actually measured using the measuring device

Rules for assigning significant figures
 1. digits other than zero are always significant
 2. final zeros after a decimal point are always significant
 3. zeros between two other significant digits are always significant
 4. zeros used only to space the decimal are never significant

Conversions
changing one unit of measure into another so that both amounts remain equal

Equation
a mathematical statement in which two terms are equal

Variable
an unknown value in a mathematical equation.

Flow rate
the rate (in ml/hr or ml/minute) at which a solution administered to a patient: also known as the rate of administration

Concentration
the strength of a solution as measured by the weighttovolume or volumetovolume of the substance being measured.

Total parenteral nutrition
administration of all nutrients intravenously; also known as hyperalimentation

qs ad
the quantity needed to make a prescribed amount

millequivalent (mEq)
the unit of measure for electrolytes in a solution

Valence
the number of positive or negative charges on an ion.

Powder volume
the proportion of the column of the final mixed product that is attributed to the powder

Body surface area
a measure used for dosage that is calculated from the height and weight of a person and measured in square meters

Namogram
a chart showing relationships between measurements

Usual and customary price (U&C)
the price charged for a prescription if there are no discounts or third parties paying for the prescription

Gross profit
the difference between the selling price and the acquision cost

Net profit
the difference between the selling price of the prescription and the sum of all the costs associated with filling the prescription