Final of Chapter 18

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Final of Chapter 18
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2012-03-28 23:56:03
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Madrigal Biology
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Finished Chapter Cards
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  1. Why is there only one scientific name?
    To avoid confusion of common names like: puma and cougar.
  2. Besides the binomial nomenclature what else did Linnaeus develop?
    A way to classify and organize orgaisms into groups with seven levels.
  3. What are the seven levels Linnaeus uses?
    Domaine, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.


    (Deaf kids playing catch on freeways get smashed.)
  4. How are the seven levels of Linnaeus ordered?
    General to Very Specific
  5. What are two problems with traditional classification?
    The disagreement of different features and their importance. Which trait is best to classify with? & Body structure/convergent evolution (unrelated look the same ex: bird and bat)
  6. What does evolutionary classification use?
    It uses lines of evolutionary descent to draw boundaries (common ancestry). Ex: Segmentation, exoskeleton, swimming larvae.
  7. What is cladistic analysis?
    A type of evolutionary classification which uses evolutionary innovations to draw boundaries and design family trees.
  8. What are derived characteristics?
    Characteristics that appear in recent parts of the lineage but not in older members.
  9. What are three characteristics of derived characterisitcs?
    • -Uses derived characteristics to construct a cladogram(family tree)
    • - Shows evolutionary advances over time
    • - Shows how one lineage branched from another
  10. What can you use to determine relatedness and change in the genetic code over time?
    DNA
  11. Wat does the Molecular Clock do?
    using DNA comparisons to determine how long organisms have been evolving independently and looks for common and unique mutations.
  12. Statement: Mutations may have little or no effect on an organism they accumulate in the DNA at a fairly constant rate. Rarely does it affect the body system or phenotype.
  13. By looking at DNA we use dissimilarities to do what?
    To show how long 2 species have been evolving independently.
  14. We change the classification system and the placement of organisms as what happens?
    As we get new information from research.
  15. How many kingdonms were known in Linnaeus' time and what were they?
    2- Animals and plants
  16. Today how many domains do we use and what are they?
    3- Eubacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
  17. How many kingdoms do we use today and what are they?
    6- Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animlia
  18. What domain and kingdom are we in?
    Eukarya & Animalia
  19. What are Eubacteria?
    Unicellular prokaryotes that have thick rigid cell walls surrounding a cell membrane.
  20. What do the cell walls of a unicellular prokaryote contain?
    The chemical compound peptidoglycan.
  21. Statement: Eubacteria is ecologically diverse (free living to parasites)
  22. What is a Eubacteria's food/energy?
    Anaerobic or aerobic, photosynthesis
  23. What is Archaea?
    Unicellular prokaryote which live in extreme environment (hot springs, thermal vents, brine pools.
  24. Unlike Eubacteria, what do Archaea cell walls not have?
    Peptidoglycan and the membranes have unusual chemicals.
  25. What is a Eukarya?
    Eukaryote and nucleus
  26. What is a protista?
    Eukaryotic orgaisms that don't fit in any of the other kingdoms. High level of diversity, May be single or multicellular, photodynthetic or heterotrophic.
  27. What are fungi?
    Heterotrophs which feed on dead or decaying matter. Excrete enzymes, digest then ingest smaller macromolecules. Ex: Mushrooms, mold, yeast
  28. What are plants?
    Multicellular organisms that are photosyntheitc autrotrophs. Can't move and have dell walls made out of cellulose. Have specialized tissue (vascular) reproduce by fusion of gametes.
  29. What is animalia?
    Animals, multicellular, heterotrophs that do not have cell walls. Most can move and have specialized tissue (bone, muscle, heart) reproduce by fusion of gametes.

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