Medical Terminology Ch 9

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Medical Terminology Ch 9
2012-03-29 01:18:37
Urinary System

Kidneys, bladder, ureters
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  1. azot/o
    nitrogenous waste
  2. bacteri/o
  3. cyst/o
    urinary bladder
  4. glomerul/o
  5. glycos/o
    sugar, glucose
  6. keton/o
  7. lith/o
  8. meat/o
  9. nephr/o
  10. noct/i
  11. olig/o
  12. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  13. ren/o
  14. ur/o
  15. ureter/o
  16. urethr/o
  17. urin/o
  18. -lith
  19. -lithiasis
    condition of stones
  20. -ptosis
  21. -tripsy
    surgical crushing
  22. -uria
    condition of the urine
  23. genitourinary system
    main fx to filter and remove waste products from the blood
  24. Urine
    waste material that is excreted from the body results from filtration and removal of waste products from the blood.
  25. uremia
    a build up of toxins in the blood
  26. nephrons
    • where actual filtration of waste products occurs in kidneys.
    • Millions make up each kidney
    • working unit of the kidney
  27. ureters
    urine drains from each kidney and ureters transport it to the kidneys
  28. urinary bladder
    bladders can hold about one quart of this liquid. When the urinary bladder empties, urine moves from the bladder to the urethra.
  29. Urethra
    organs that facilitates excretion of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
  30. retroperitoneal
    not inside the peritoneal sac
  31. hilum
    concaved area in the center of the kidney
  32. renal artery
    • the renal artery enters at the hilum
    • delivers blood that is full of waste products to the kidney
  33. renal vein
    • leaves the kidney at the hilum
    • returns the now cleansed blood
  34. cortex
    The outer portion of the kidney shell-like
  35. medulla
    inner are of the kidney
  36. renal pyramids
    • triangular shaped areas within the medulla
    • each tip points toward the hilum
  37. renal papilla
    the tip of each renal pyramid is called the renal papilla
  38. calyx (calyces)
    • each pyramid open into a calyx
    • help in collecting urine as it is formed
  39. renal pelvis
    • continuous from the calyces
    • collects urine as it is formed
    • ureter for each kidney arises from the renal pelvis
  40. Each nephron consists of
    renal corpuscle and the renal tubule
  41. renal corpuscle
    the blood filtering portion of the nephron
  42. Glomerular
    • renal corpuscle has a double walled cup-like structure call the glomerular or Bowman's capsule
    • encases a ball of capillaries called glomerulus
  43. Afferent arteriole
    • Carries blood to the glomerulus
    • Afferent means towards
  44. efferent arteriole
    carries blood away from the glomerulus
  45. Renal tubule are divided into four sections:
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • loop of Henle (nephron loop)
    • distal convoluted tubule
    • collecting tubule
  46. Ureters
    • Urine drains out of the renal pelvis into the ureters
    • Ureter carries urine down to the urinary bladder
    • narrow tubes 1/4 in wide
    • 10-12 inches long
    • Lined with mucous membrane that opens to external environment
  47. Urinary bladder
    • elastic muscular sac that lies in the base of the pelvis below the pubis
    • composed of three layers of smooth muscles called rugae
    • receives urine from ureters stores it and excretes it through urination through urethra
    • adult bladder hold 250mL
    • voiding controlled by involuntary muscle contraction and internal sphincter relaxing.
    • Voluntary action controls the external sphincter which opens on demand
    • allows intentional emptying of the bladder
  48. Urethra
    • tubular cnal that carries the flow of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
    • external opening urine passes through called the urinary meatus
    • Lined with mucous membrane
    • 11/2 inches long in females
    • 8 in in males
    • In males used as a passage for urine and semen
  49. Kidneys and homeostasis
    • homeostasis- balance the chemical conditions in the body
    • excretes substances
    • maintains proper balance of water and chemicals
    • regulates the level of electrolytes small biologically important molecules.
    • Maintains correct pH within the body making sure its not to acidic or alkaline
  50. Urine production occurs in three stages
    • filtration- filtering of particles, occurs in renal corpuscle
    • The pressure of blood flowing through the glomerulus forces the material out of the bloodstream through the Bowman's capsule and into renal tubules
    • (fluid in tubes called the glomerular filtrate)
    • Reabsorption - filtrate passes through four sections of tubule and water, nutrients, and electrolytes reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries
    • Secretion- final stage, special cells secrete ammonia, uric acid, and other wastes into the renal tubule to collecting tubules, renal papilla, calyx, renal pelvis, and to the ureters.