UMN Neuro Exam 3

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Anonymous
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144557
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UMN Neuro Exam 3
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2012-03-29 02:46:39
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UMN 2012 Neuro Exam
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Neuroscience Sensations Exam 3
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  1. Cornea
    • Transparent
    • Nociceptors
  2. Astigmatism
    • Inability to focus
    • Due to shape of lens
    • Corrected by LASIK
  3. Sclera
    Whites of eyes
  4. Hyperopia
    • Farsightedness
    • Images focused in front of retina
  5. Myopia
    Distant objects focused behind retina
  6. Presbyopia
    Loss of elasticity of the lens
  7. Papilla
    Optic disc
  8. Fovea contains only ______
    Cones
  9. 5 types of neurons in retina
    • Retinal ganglion cells - axons become optic nerve
    • Amacrine cells
    • Bipolar cells
    • Horizonatal cells - modulate activity of photoreceptors
    • Photoreceptors - rods/cones
  10. Photoreceptors release which neurotransmitter
    Glutamine
  11. Scotopic vision
    Night vision
  12. Photopic vision
    Day vision
  13. Dark adaptation
  14. Axons from medial eye ___________
    Cross to other side of brain
  15. Axons from lateral eye
    Dont cross to other side of brain
  16. Primary Visual Pathway
    Retinal ganglion cells --> LGN (in thalamus) --> Primary visual cortex (occipital lobe)
  17. Primary visual cortex also called
    • V1
    • Striate cortex
    • Brodman's area 17
  18. Optic radiation
    Fibers representing superior retinal quadrants (lower visual field)
  19. Optic radiation terminates in
    Upper bank
  20. Meyers loop terminates in
    Lower bank
  21. Meyers loop
    • Terminates in lower bank
    • Gets input from inferior retinal quadrants (Upper visual field)
  22. Layers in lateral geniculate nucleus
    • Layers 1 and 2: Magnocellular division - input from rods = motion detection
    • Layers 3-6: Parvocellular division - input from cones = visual acuity and color vision
  23. Object recognition processing stream
    Parvocellular division of LGN --> V1 --> V2 --> V4 --> Inferotemporal cortex
  24. Visual Agnosia
    inability to recognize objects
  25. Prosopagnosia
    Inability to recognize faces
  26. Motion/Spatial processing stream
    Magnocellular division of LGN --> V1 --> V3 --> Medial temporal cortex
  27. Intensity (loudness)
    Sound pressure (dB) = 20logPt/Pr
  28. Presbycusis
    Age related hearing loss of the higher frequencies
  29. Tensor tympani innervated by
    Trigeminal nerve
  30. Stapedius innervated by
    Facial nerve
  31. Perilymph
    • Like CSF
    • Low K, Higher Na
  32. Endolymph
    High K
  33. Inner hair cells
    90% of afferent fibers --> CNS
  34. Outer hair cells
    • Dancing cells
    • Mostly efferent innervation
  35. Stereocilia
    • In response to mechanical deformation they pivot in unison
    • Voltage gated Ca+ channels open to release neurotransmitter
    • Inside Organ of Corti
  36. Spiral ganglion
    • Cell bodies of primary afferent cell
    • 1st order sensory cell
    • Inside Organ of Corti
  37. 3 basic parameters of sound
    • Intensity - rate of action potential discharge
    • Frequency - by the particular part of basilar membrane that vibrates most from sound
    • Location - interaural differences of time and intensity
  38. Suprachiasmatic nucleus gets input directly from eye for
    Circadian rhythms
  39. Superior Colliculus
    • Controls eye and head movement
    • Input from LGN
  40. The Calcarine Sulcus is the location for
    Primary Visual Cortex
  41. Superior Colliculus
    • Controls eye movements
    • Lighter areas: cell bodies/nucleus
    • Darker areas: unmyelinated axons
  42. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
    • Circadian rhythms
    • Sleep-wake
    • Light-dark entrainment
    • Body temp
    • Hormones
    • Pacemaker - endogenous clock
  43. Audition
    Cochlea -> Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (Rostral Medulla) -> Superior Olivary Complex (Pons) -> Inferior Colliculus (Midbrain) -> Medial Geniculate Nucleus (Thalamus) -> Auditory Cortex (Transverse Temporal Gyri)
  44. Pons contains which part of audition?
    • Superior Olivary Complex
    • Also has ML which makes up trapezoid body
    • Also mesencephalic tract, primary sensory nucleus of V, and motor tract of V
  45. 3 pathways of visual input
    • 1) Retinal rods and cones --> Retinal ganglion cells --> optic nerve --> Optic chiasm -> optic tract -> LGN -> Primary Visual Cortex (Calcarine Fissure in Occipital lobe)
    • 2) Retinal rods and cones -> Retinal ganglion cells -> Optic nerve -> Optic chiasm -> Optic tract -> LGN -> Superior Colliculus (In midbrain, important for reflexes)
    • 3) Retinal rods and cones -> Retinal ganglion cells -> Optic nerve -> Optic chiasm -> Hypothalamus (Suprachiasmatic nucleus)
  46. Superior Olivary Complex gets input from
    Both ears (bi lateral input)
  47. Inferior Colliculus accessed through
    lateral lemniscus
  48. Sweaty
    Isovaleric Acid
  49. Stinging
    Formic Acid
  50. Approximately 10% of population doesn't detect which smell?
    Sweaty
  51. How many odorants are detectable?
    >10,000
  52. Olfactory receptor neurons are replaced every...
    • 1-3 months
    • One of few neurons that's continuously replaced
  53. Bowmans glands
    Mucous secreting glands of nose
  54. Structure of olfactory receptor neuron
    • Distal end: receptor sites on cilia
    • Proximal end: unmyelinated axons - CN I (Olfactory Nerve)
  55. Olfactory Transduction
    • 1) Odorant + OBP
    • 2) Bind receptors on cilia
    • 3) G protein coupled receptors activated
    • 4) AC --> cAMP
    • 5) Na channel opens (Na in) - depo
    • 6) Ca channel opens (Ca in) - depo
    • 7) Cl (out)
    • 8) Amplifies Depolarization
  56. Lateral olfactory tract includes
    • Piriform cortex
    • Periamygdaloid cortex
    • Entorhinal cortex
  57. Primary olfactory cortex all found
    Within medial part of temporal lobe
  58. Most significant part of olfactory system
    • Linked with limbic system
    • NO THALMIC RELAY
  59. Annosmia
    Complete loss of smell
  60. Hyposmia
    • Partial loss of smell
    • Due to transport problem (blockage of pathways) or sensorineural disorder (loss of neurons, smoking, drug abuse)
  61. Dysosmia
    Distorted olfaction
  62. Olfactory hallucinations
    Caused by seizures in temporal lobe
  63. Gustatory Stimuli
    • Salty - NaCl
    • Sweet - sucrose
    • Sour - HCl
    • Bitter - Quinone
    • Umami - Glutamate
  64. Taste bud receptor cells replaced every
    1-3 weeks
  65. Taste bud receptor cells works via:
    • Depolarization -> release of neurotransmitters
    • ATP involved (ATP-> Adenosine) - activates taste receptor neuron
  66. Taste transduction
    • Salty: NaCl
    • Sour: HCl
    • Bitter/Sweet/Umami: GPCR
  67. Taste GPCR works via
    Phospholipase C --> Release of Ca2+ from ER -> Depolarization
  68. Anterior 2/3 of tongue innervated by:
    • Lingual Nerve (CN V) - SOMATOSENSATION ONLY - no taste
    • Chorda tympani (CN VII) - taste
  69. Posterior 1/3 of tongue innervated by:
    Glossopharyngeal (IX)
  70. Soft Palate innervated by:
    Superior Petrosal Nerve (CN VII)
  71. Esophagus and epiglottis innervated by:
    Superior Laryngeal Nerve - Vagus (X)
  72. Gustatory Pathways
    Nucleus of solitary tract (Medulla) -> VPM -> Primary taste cortex (Insular cortex)
  73. Ageusia
    Total loss of taste
  74. Hypogeusia
    Decrease in taste sensitivity
  75. Dysgeusia
    • Aberrant taste sensation
    • Can be caused by radiation therapy and dentures
  76. Space between vestibular apparatus and bone filled with
    Perilymph
  77. Otolith organs concerned with
    • static position
    • located in vestibule (chamber separating semicircular canals from cochlea)
  78. Utricle
    Horizontal plane
  79. Saccule
    Vertical plane
  80. Semicircular canals respond to
    • Head rotation
    • Angular acceleration
  81. Vestibular apparatus is filled with
    endolymph (high concentration of K+ ions)
  82. Hair cells embedded in
    • Otolithic organs: Otoconia
    • Semicircular canals: Cupula
  83. Movement of stereocilia toward kinocilium
    K+ moves into cell (Depolarization)-> Opens Ca2+ channels -> Release of neurotransmitters (Glutamate) -> INCREAED frequency of action potentials
  84. Movement of stereocilia away from kinocilium
    Decreased frequency of action potentials
  85. Afferents from CN VIII
    • 1) 1st order neurons - most afferents to vestibular nuclei (medulla), some to cerebellum (balance)
    • 2) 2nd order neurons - to CN III, IV, and VI, cerebellum, spinal cord
  86. Endolymph flows in ____ direction as movement direction
    Opposite
  87. Nystagmus
    • Rapid back and forth eye movements
    • Smooth pursuit: slow phase
    • Sarcotic: rapid phase
  88. Caloric nystagmus
    • Temperature sensitive
    • Cold is opposite (fast phase to opposite side, slow phase to same side)
    • Hot is same side fast phase
  89. Menieres Disease
    • Due to increased endolymph within vestibular apparatus OR decreased endolymph due to rupture of tubule
    • Symptoms are sensation of fullness in ears, tinnutis, vertigo, imbalance, nausea, hearing loss
  90. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Nystagmus
    • Otoconia break off otolithic membrane and get into tubule and block it
    • Symptoms are vertigo, imbalance and nausea (No hearing loss)
  91. Alcohol induced vertigo
    • Cupula is highly vascular and absorbs alcohol -> cupula float -> imbalance = spinning sensation
    • Alcohol leaves cupula by uptake into endolymph -> cupula sinks

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