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2012-03-30 19:48:04
Medical Terminology Health Professionals 6E JCCC AAC130 Digestive Pathology

Ch8 Medical Terminology - PART 4 - Digestive System - Pathology
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  1. Aphthous (Canker sores or Mouth ulcers)
    1. Grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth

    2. Exact cause is unknown, but these very common sores are associated with stress, certain foods, or fever.
  2. Cheilosis (Cheilitis)
    Disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth.
  3. Herpes labialis (Cold sore or Fever blister)
    1. Blister-like sores on lips & adjacent facial tissue.

    2. Caused by oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)

    3. Most adults have been infected by this extremely common virus. In some, it becomes re-activated periodically, causing cold sores.
  4. Oral thrush
    1. A type of stomatomycosis that occurs when fungus Candida albicans grows out of control.

    2, Symptoms are creamy white lesions on tongue or inner cheeks

    • 3. Most common in:
    • .....a. Infants
    • .....b. Older adults with weakened immune systems
    • .....c. Individials who have been taking antibiotics.
  5. Stomatomycosis
    • Any disease of the mouth due to a fungus.
    • Note: This includes oral thrush.
  6. Stomatorrhagia
    Bleeding from any part of the mouth or oral cavity.
  7. Trismus
    1. Any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with treatment of oral cancer.

    2. This condition causes difficulty in speaking & affects the patient's nutrition due to impaired abiity toe chew & swallow.
  8. Xerostomia (Dry mouth)
    1. Lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands.

    2. This condition can be due to medication or radiation of the salivary glands.

    • 3. Can cause:
    • .....a. Discomfort
    • .....b. Difficulty in swallowing
    • .....c. Changes in taste of food
    • .....d. Oral decay
  9. Cleft Lip (Hare lip)
    1. Birth defect in which there is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose.

    2. Results from failure of the portion of the lip to close during prenatal development.

    3. Can occur with cleft hard and/or soft palates or singly.

    4. Can usually be corrected surgically.
  10. Cleft palate
    1. Failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus.

    2. This opening can involve the upper lip, hard palate, and/or soft palate.

    3. If not corrected, this opening between the nose & mouth makes it difficult for the child to eat & speak.

    4. Cleft lip and palate can occur singly or together and usually can be corrected surgically.
  11. Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (Trench mouth)
    1. Caused by abnormal growth of bacteria in mouth.

    2. As condition progresses, the inflammation, bleeding, deep ulcers, and death of gum tissue becomme more severe.
  12. Necrotizing
    Means causing ongoing tissue death.
  13. Bruxism
    1. Involuntary grinding & clenching of teeth that usually occurs during sleep.

    2. Often associated with tension or stress.

    3. This behavior wears away tooth structure, damages periodontal tissues, & injures the TMJ.
  14. Dental calculus (tartar)
    1. Dental plaque that has calcified (hardened) on teeth.

    • 2. These deposits:
    • .....a. irritate surrounding tissues
    • .....b. cause increasingly serious periodontal diseases.

    NOTE: Term also used to describe hard deposits, such as gallstones or kidney stones, that form in other parts of the body.
  15. Denhtal plaque
    1. Consists of bacteria & bacterial by-products.

    2. Major cause of dental caries & periodontal disease.

    3. Forms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near gums & between teeth.

    NOTE: By contrast, plaque associated with heart conditions consists of deposits of cholesteral that form within blood vessels.
  16. Dental caries (tooth decay)
    1. Infectious disease caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel & dentin of the tooth.

    2. If the decay process is not arrested, the pulp can be exposed & become infected.
  17. Gingivitis
    1. Earliest stage of periodontal disease

    2. Inflammation affects only the gums
  18. Halitosis (bad breath)
    1. Unpleasant odor coming from the mouth

    • 2. Can be caused by:
    • .....a. Dental diseases
    • .....b. Respiratory disorders
    • .....c. Gastric disorders
  19. Periodonal disease (periodontitis)
    1. Inflammation of the tissues that surround & support the teeth

    • 2.A progressive disease
    • 3. It is classified according to the degree of tissue involvement.

    4. In severe cases, the gums & bone surrounding the teeth are involved.
  20. Temoporomandibular disorder
    • 1. Part of a group of complex symptoms that include:
    • .....a. Pain
    • .....b. Headache
    • .....c. Difficulty chewing

    2. Related to the functioning of the temopromandibular joint (TMJ).
  21. Dysphagia
    Difficulty swallowing
  22. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    Upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus.
  23. Reflux
    1. A backward or return flow.

    2. When this occurs, the stomach acid iritates & damages the delicate lining of the esophagus.
  24. Pyrosis (heartburn)
    Burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus.
  25. Esophageal varices
    1. Enlarged & swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus

    2. Severe bleeding occurs if one of these veins ruptures.
  26. Hiatal hernia
    1. Condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, thru an opening in the diaphragm.

    2. This condition can cause esophageal reflux & pyrosis.
  27. Hernia
    The protrusion of a part or structure thru the tissues that normally contain it.
  28. Gastritis
    Common inflammation of the stomach lining that is often caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
  29. Gastroenteritis
    Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach & intestines.
  30. Gastrorrhea
    Excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach.
  31. Peptic ulcers
    1. Sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system.

    2. They are caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori or by medications such as aspirin, that irritate the mucous membranes.

    • 3. 3 examples:
    • .....a. Gastric ulcer - occur in the stomach
    • .....b. Duodenal ulcer - occur in the upper part of the small intestine.
    • .....c. Perforated ulcer - A complication of a peptic ulcer in which the ulcer erodes thru the entire thickness of the organ wall.
  32. Ulcer
    Erosion of the skin or mucous membrane.
  33. Gastric ulcer
    A peptic ulcer that occurs in the stomach.
  34. Duodenal ulcer
    A peptic ulcer that occurs in the upper part of the small intestine.
  35. Perforated ulcer
    A complication of a peptic ulcer in which the ulcer erodes thru the entire thickness of the organ wall.
  36. Anorexia
    Loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease.
  37. Anorexia nervosa
    1. An eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance

    2. This leads to an intense fear of gaining weight & refusal to maintain a normal body weight.

    3. Voluntary starvation & excessive exercising often cause the patient to become emaciated.
  38. Bulimia nervosa
    Eating disorder chacterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications.
  39. Emaciated
    Means abnormally thin.
  40. Bulimia
    Means continuous, excessive hunger.
  41. Cachexia
    1. Condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight & muscle mass.

    2. Occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS.

    3. Altho these patients are eating enough, the wasting happens because their bodies are unable to obsorb the nutrients.
  42. Pica
    Abnormal craving, that lasts at least a month, for nonfood substances such as dirt, paint or clay

    NOTE: This is not the same as the short-lasting abnormal food cravings that are sometimes associated with pregnancy.
  43. Dehydration
    Condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake & distrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance.
  44. Malnutrition
    • Lack of proper food or nutrients in the body due to:
    • .....a. A shortage of food
    • .....b. Poor eating habits
    • .....c. The inability of the body to digest, absorb, & distribute these nutrients.
  45. Malabsorption
    Condition in which the small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from the food that passes thru it.
  46. Obesity
    1. Excessive accumulation of fat in the body.

    2. Usually used to refer to individuals who are more than 20-30% over the established weight standards for their height, age, & gender.

    • 3. Frequently present as a comorbidity with conditions such as:
    • .....a. Hypertension
    • .....b. Diabetes
  47. Gender
    Refers to the differences between men & women.
  48. Morbid obesity
    Condition of weighing two to three times, or more, than the ideal weight AND having a body mass index (BMI) greater than 39.
  49. Comorbidity
    Means the presence of more than one disease or health condition in an individual at a given time.
  50. Morbid
    Means a diseased state.
  51. Body Mass Index (BMI)
    1. Number that shows body weight adjusted for height.

    • 2. The results fall into one of these categories:
    • .....a. Underweight
    • .....b. Normal weight
    • .....c. Overweight
    • .....d. Obese

    3. A high BMI is one of many factors related to developing chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, or diabetes.
  52. Aerophagia
    1. Excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking

    2. Common cause of gas in the stomach
  53. Dypepsia (indigestion)
    Pain or dicomfort in digestion.
  54. Emesis (vomiting)
    Reflex ejection of the stomach contents thru the mouth.

    NOTE: This is both a standalone word AND a suffix!
  55. Eructation
    Act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach.
  56. Hematemesis
    Vomiting of blood
  57. Hyperemesis
    Extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration

    NOTE: During the early stages of pregnancy, this is known as morning sickness.
  58. Nausea
    The urge to vomit.
  59. Regurgitation
    Return of swallowed food into the mouth.
  60. Colorectal carcinoma (colon cancer)
    Often first manifests itself in polyps in the colon.
  61. Diverticulosis
    Presence of a number of diverticula in the colon.
  62. Diverticulum (plural: diverticula)
    A small pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ such as the colon.
  63. Enteritis
    1. Inflammation of the small intestine
  64. 2. Caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral & bacterial pathogens
  65. Ileus
    1. The partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine.

    2. Caused by the cessation of intestinal peristalsis.

    • 3. Symptoms can incude:
    • .....a. Severe pain
    • .....b. Cramping
    • .....c. Abdominal distension
    • .....d. Vomiting
    • .....e. Failure to pass gas or stools
  66. Postoperative Ileus
    A temporary impairment of bowel motility that is considered to be a normal response to abdominal surgery.

    2. It is often present for 24 - 72 hours depending on what part of the digestive system was treated.
  67. Irritable bowel syndrome (Spastic colon)
    • Common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include:
    • .....a. Intermittent cramping
    • .....b. Abdominal pain
    • .....c. Bloating
    • .....d. Constipation
    • .....e. Diarrhea

    2. This condition is usually aggravated by stress, and is NOT caused by pathogens or by structural changes.
  68. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
    1. General name for diseases that cause inflammation in the intestine.

    • 2. Two most common inflammatory bowel disease are:
    • .....a. Ulcerative colitis
    • .....b. Crohn's disease

    • 3. These conditions are grouped together because both are:
    • .....a. Chronic
    • .....b. Incurable
    • .....c. Can affect the large & small intestines
    • .....d. Have similar symptoms, including:
    • ...........(1.) Abdominal pain
    • ...........(2.) Weight loss
    • ...........(3.) Fatigue
    • ...........(4.) Fever
    • ...........(5.) Rectal bleeding
    • ...........(6.) Diarrhea
    • .....e. Tend to occur at intervals of active disease (flares), alternating with periods of remission.

    4. Treated with medication & surgery to remove disease portions of the intestine.
  69. Ulcerative colitis
    1. Chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum & large intestine cause ulcers & irritation.

    2. Usually starts in the rectum & progresses upward to the lower part of the colon; it can affect the entire large intestine.

    3. Affects only the innermost lining & not the deep tissues of the colon.
  70. Crohn's disease (CD)
    1. Chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract

    2. Most often found in the ileum & colon

    3. In contrast to ulcerative colitis, generally penetrates every layer of tissue in the affected area.

    4. Commonly results in scarring & thickening of the walls of the affected structure

    5. Regional ileitis is term when affects the ileus.

    6. Crohn's colitis is term when affects the colon.
  71. Regional ileitis
    Crohn's disease when it affects the ileus.
  72. Crohn's colitis
    Crohn's disease when it affects the colon.
  73. Ileitis
    Inflammmation of the ileum.
  74. Colitis
    Inflammation of the colon.

    NOTE: Not the same condition as ulcerative colitis
  75. Intestinal obstruction
    1. Partial or complete blockage of the small &/or large intestine caused by a physical obstruction.

    2. This blockage can result from many causes such as scar tissue or a tumor. from many causes

    • 3. Examples of obstructions, or conditions that can lead to obstructions, are:
    • .....a. Intestinal adhesions
    • .....b. Strangulating obstruction
    • .....c. Volvulus
    • .....d. Intussusception
    • .....e. Hiatal hernia
    • .....f. Strangulated hernia
  76. Intestinal adhesions
    1. Caused by inflammation or trauma.

    2. Abnormally held together parts of the intestine that should be separate.

    3. Can lead to intestinal obstruction
  77. Strangulating obstruction
    1. Blood flow to a segment of the intestine is cut off.

    2. This can lead to gangrene or obstruction.
  78. Gangrene
    Tissue death that is usually associated with a loss of circulation.
  79. Perforation
    A hole thru the wall of a structure.
  80. Volvulus
    1. Twisting of the intestine on itself that causes an obstruction.

    2. Usually occurs in infancy.
  81. Intussusception
    1. Telescoping of one part of the SMALL intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part.

    2. This is rare condition that is sometimes found in infants & young children.
  82. Inguinal hernia
    Protrusion of a small loop of bowel thru a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin.

    • 2. This condition can be caused by:
    • .....a. Obesity
    • .....b. Pregnancy
    • .....c. Heavy lifting
    • .....d. Straining to pass a stool
  83. Strangulated hernia
    This occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia & its blood supply is cut off.
  84. Infectious diseases of the intestines
    • 1. Transmitted through:
    • .....a. Contaminated food & water
    • .....b. Poor sanitation practices.

    • 2. Some common examples include:
    • .....a. Amebia dysentery
    • .....b. Botulism
    • .....c. Cholera
    • .....d. E. coli
    • .....e. Salmonellosis
    • .....f. Typhoid fever
  85. Amebic dysentery (amebiasis)
    What is contaminated: Food or water

    How transmitted: Due to poor sanitation conditions

    Caused by: Entamoeba histolytica - 1-celled parasite

    • Symptoms:
    • .....a. Mild form: loose stools, stomach pain & cramping
    • .....b. Severe form: Bloody stools & fever
  86. Botulism (food poisoning)
    What is contaminated: Food or infected wound

    How transmitted: Food or infected wound

    Caused by: bacterium Clostridium botulinum toxin

    • Symptoms:
    • .....a. Rare, but very serious
    • .....b. Among the most poisonous toxins known to man
    • .....c. Paralysis or death
  87. Cholera
    What is contaminated: Food or water

    How transmitted: Thru contact

    Caused by: bacterium Vibrio cholerae

    • Symptoms:
    • ......a. Starts with diarrhea
    • ......b. Can progress to profuse diarrhea, vomiting, & rapid dehydration
    • .....c. Can be fatal if not treated.
  88. E, coli
    What is contaminated: Food

    How transmitted: Food hasn't been properly cooked

    Caused by: bacterium Escherichia coli

    • Symptoms:
    • .....a. Blood diarrhea & abdominal cramping
    • .....b. Can be severe, or fatal, in the very young & elderly
  89. Salmonellosis (salmonella)
    What is contaminated: Food

    How transmitted: Contamination with feces

    Caused by: bacteria Salmonella

    • Symptoms:
    • .....a Severe diarrhea
    • .....b. Vomiting
    • .....c. Abdominal cramps
    • .....d. High fever
  90. Typhoid fever (enteric fever)
    What is contaminated: Food

    How transmitted: Food handled by typhoid carrier

    Caused by: bacerium salmonella typhi

    • Symptoms:
    • .....a. Headache
    • .....b. Delirium
    • .....c. Cough
    • .....d. Watery diarrhea
    • .....e. Rash
    • .....f. High fever
  91. Anal Fissue
    1. Small crack-like sore in the skin of the anus

    2. Can cause severe pain during a bowel movement
  92. Bowel incontinence
    Inability to control the excretion of feces
  93. Constipation
    1. Having a bowel movement fewer than 3 times per week.

    2. With constipation, stools are usually dry, small in size, & difficult to eliminate
  94. Diarrhea
    1. Abnormally frequent flow of loose or watery stools

    2. Can lead to dehydration
  95. Hemorrhoids (piles)
    Occurs when a cluster of veins, muscles, & tissues slip near or thru the anal opening.

    • 2. The veins can become inflammed, resulting in:
    • .....a. Pain
    • .....b. Anal leakage
    • .....c. Bleeding
  96. Melena
    1. Passage of dark, tarry, foul-smelling stools

    2. The appearance is caused by the presence of digested blood

    3. Often indicates an injury or disorder in the UPPER prt of the gastrointestinal tract.

    NOTE: In contrast, bright red blood in the stool usually indicates the blood is coming from the LOWER part of the gastrointestinal tract.
  97. Liver disorders
    1. These are major concerns because the functioning of the liver is essential to the digestive process.

    • 2. Examples include:
    • .....a. Hepatitis (Types A - E)
    • .....b. Hepatomegaly
    • .....c. Jaundice
    • .....d. Cirrhosis
  98. Hepatitis
    1. Inflammation of the liver

    • 2. The 5 varieties of viral hepatitis include:
    • .....a. Hepatitis A - prevented by vaccine
    • .....b. Hepatitis B - prevented by vaccine
    • .....c. Hepatitis C - NO vaccine available
    • .....d. Hepatitis D - No specific vaccine, should give Hep B vaccine to prevent cco-infection
    • .....e. Hepatitis E - uncommon in the United States
  99. Hepatitis A
    Caused by: HAV (Hepatitis A virus) virus

    Transmitted by: Contaminated food & water

    .Vaccine avilable? Yes (Hep A vaccine)
  100. Hepatitis B
    Caused by: HBV (Hepatitis B virus) virus

    Transmitted by: Bloodborne thru contact with contaminated blood & other bodily fluids

    Vaccine available: Yes (immunity against HBV)

    Other: One cause of cirrhosis of the liver
  101. Hepatitis C
    Caused by: HVC (hepatitis virus C)

    Transmitted by: Bloodborne thru contact with contaminated blood & other bodily fluids

    Vaccine available: No vaccine

    • Other:
    • .....a. Known as silent epidemic because it can be present in the body for years, & destroy the liver before any symptoms appear.
    • .....b. One cause of cirrhosis of the liver
  102. Hepatitis D
    Caused by: HDV (Hepatitis D virus)

    Transmitted by: Bloodborne

    Vaccine available: No specific vaccine, but should give HBV vaccine to prevent a HBV/HDV co-infection.

    Other: Only occurs as a co-infection with Hepatitis B
  103. Hepatitis E
    Caused by: HEV (hepatitis E virus)

    Transmitted by: Contaminated food & water

    Vaccine available: ??

    Other: Is uncommon in the United States
  104. Hepatomegaly
    Abnormal enlargement of the liver
  105. Jaundice
    • 1. Yellow discoloration of the:
    • .....a. Skin
    • .....b. Mucous membranes
    • .....c. Eyes

    2. Caused by abnormally high amounts of bilirubin in the blood
  106. Cirrhosis
    1. Progressive degenerative disease of the liver

    • 2. Often caused by:
    • .....a. Excessive alcohol use
    • .....b. Viral hepatitis B or C

    3. Progress of cirrhosis is marked by formation of areas of scarred liver tissue filled with fat.

    4. This damage causes abnormal conditions throughout the other body systems.

    5. Hobnail liver is the lumpy appearance of the liver surface due to cirrhosis.
  107. Ascites
    1. Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
  108. Degenerative
    Means progressive deterioration resulting in the loss of tissue or organ function.
  109. Caput medusae
    Distended & engorged veins that are visible raditing from the umbilicus in patient with ascites.
  110. Hobnail liver
    Describes the lumpy appearance of the liver surface dur to cirrhosis.
  111. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    1. A range of conditions characterized by an accumulation of fat within the liver & affecting people who drink little or no alcohol.

    • 2. Patients with this condition are most often:
    • .....a. Middle-aged
    • .....b. Obese
    • .....c. May have diabetes
    • .....b. May have elevated cholesterol

    • 3. 2 types of this condition:
    • .....a. Steatosis - mildest form
    • .....b. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - More serious form
  112. Steatosis
    1. Mildest form of nonalcoholic fatty liver syndrome

    2. Characterized by accumulations of fat within the liver

    3. Does not usually cause liver damage.
  113. Nonaocoholic steatohepatitis
    1. More serious form of nonalcoholic fatty liver syndrome.

    2. Consists of fatty accumulations PLUS liver-damaging inflammation

    • 3. In some cases, this will progress to:
    • .....a. Cirrhosis
    • .....b. Irreversible liver scarring
    • .....c. Liver cancer.
  114. Choleangitis
    1. An acute infection of the bile duct

    • 2. Characterized by:
    • .....a. Pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen
    • .....b. Fever
    • .....c. Jaundice
  115. Cholecystalgia
    Pain in the gallbladder
  116. Cholecystitis
    1. Inflammation of the gallbladder

    2. Usually associated with gallstones blocking the flow of bile.
  117. Gallstone (biliary calculus, cholecystolith or cholelith)
    1. Hard deposit formed in the gallbladder & bile ducts

    2. Due to concretion of bile components
  118. Cholelithiasis
    Presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts.