Card Set Information

2012-03-29 08:47:21

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  1. archaea
    domain- a group of prokaryotes, many of which live in extreme climates
  2. bacteria
    • domain- a group of diverse and widespread prokaryotes, most of which
    • are unicellular and microscopic
  3. biology
    the study of life
  4. biosphere
    • the entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the
    • planet's ecosystems
  5. cell
    a basic living unit that makes up all life
  6. community
    all living things in an ecosystem
  7. consumer
    • eats plants and animals, takes in oxygen and releases CO2,
    • waste returns chemicals to the environment
  8. controlled experient
    • one of two parallel tests. varies from experimental test by one
    • factor, the variable
  9. domain
    • a category of classifying species above the kingdom level. three
    • overarching groups to organize kingdoms
  10. ecosystem
    • all living things in a specific place and all non-living things they
    • interact with
  11. emergent properties
    • new properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy in
    • life, owing to the arrangement and interaction of parts as complexity
    • increases
  12. eukarya
    domain- all the eukaryotes, organisms with eukaryotic cells
  13. eukaryotic cell
    • a larger, more complex cell divided into organelles. commonly forms
    • things like plants, animals, and fungi
  14. evolution
    descent with modification: the genetic change in a population over generations
  15. gene
    a unit of inheritance that transmits information from parents to children
  16. hypothesis
    • a tentative explanation a scientist proposes for a specific phenomenon
    • that has been observed
  17. molecule
    a group of atoms held together by chemical bonds
  18. natural selection
    • descent with modification: organisms with certain inherited
    • charactestics are more likely to survive and pass on traits to the
    • offspring
  19. organ
    • something made of multiple tissues that work together to perform a
    • function in a body
  20. organism
    an individual living thing
  21. organelle
    a membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a cell
  22. organ system
    multiple organs that work together to preform a single task in the body
  23. population
    all the individuals in a species living in a secific area
  24. producer
    photosynthetic organisms that provide food for a typical ecosystem
  25. procaryotic cell
    small, simple cell that commonly forms things like bacteria
  26. species
    • a group whose members have similar characteristics and can reproduce
    • successfully together. a particular type of organism
  27. systems biology
    • a way of studying biology by modeling the dynamic behvaior of whole
    • biological systems
  28. technology
    the practical application of scientific knowledge
  29. theory
    • a widely accepted explanatory ideas that are broad and supported by a
    • large amount of evidence
  30. bio-
  31. -logy
    the scientific study of a subject
  32. -ell
  33. eu-
  34. karyo-
  35. pro-
  36. tech-
    skill or art
  37. acid
    a compound that donates hydrogen ions to solutions
  38. acid percipitation
    rain, snow, or fog with a pH lower than 5.6
  39. adhesion
    the attraction between different kinds of molecules
  40. aqueous solution
    a solution in which water is the solvent
  41. atom
    the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
  42. atomic mass
    number of protons + number of neutrons
  43. atomic number
    number of protons in an atom
  44. base
    a compound that accepts hydrogen ions and removes them from solutions
  45. buffer
    • a substance that minimizes changes in bilogical fluids with a base and
    • and acid component
  46. chemical bond
    • an attraction between two atoms after they react to each other that
    • holds them together
  47. chemical reaction
    • the making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the
    • composition of matter
  48. cohesion
    • the binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds
    • the tendancy for molecules to sticks together
  49. compound
    a substance containing two or more elements in a fixed ratio
  50. covalent bond
    • an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell
    • electrons
  51. double bond
    a type of covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons
  52. electron
    • a subatomic particle with a single negative electric charge. circle
    • atoms at almost the speed of light.
  53. electron shell
    certain energy levels in an atom where electrons occur
  54. electronegativity
    an atom's attraction for shared electrons
  55. element
    • a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by
    • ordinary chemical means
  56. heat
    • the amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and
    • molecules in a body of matter
  57. hydrogen bond
    • the bond between two atoms when a hydrogen atom is part of a polar
    • covalent bond and its partial positive charge attracts other
    • electronegative atoms
  58. ion
    • an atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting in a gain or
    • loss of one or more electrons
  59. ionic bond
    an attraction between two ions with opposite charges that hold them together
  60. isotope
    • an isotope of an element has the same number of protons and neutrons
    • as the element, but a different number of electrons
  61. mass number
    number of protons + number of neutrons
  62. matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass
  63. molecule
    two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
  64. neutron
    a subatomic partical in an atom's nucleus with a neutral charge
  65. nonpolar covalent bond
    • a covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two
    • atoms of similar electronegativity
  66. nucleus
    an atom's centeral core, containing protons and neutrons
  67. pH scale
    • a scale of how acidic or basic a solution is. the more basic a
    • solution, the higher the concentration of OH-, the more
    • acidic, the higher the concentration of H+. pH stands for
    • potential of hydrogen.
  68. polar covalent bond
    • the unequal sharing of electrons due to the more electronegative atom
    • pulling electrons closer and making itself partially negative and the
    • other atom partially positive
  69. product
    an ending material in a chemical reaction
  70. proton
    • a subatomic particle with a single positive electric charge. stays in
    • the nucleus of an atom.
  71. radioactive isotope
    • an unstable isotope whose nucleus decays spontaneously, giving of
    • particles and energy
  72. reactant
    a starting material in a chemical reaction
  73. salt
    a compound of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl)
  74. solute
    the substance being dissolved in a solution
  75. solution
    a liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substances
  76. solvent
    the dissolving agent
  77. surface tension
    a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
  78. temperature
    the average speed of molecules; the intensity of heat
  79. trace element
    an element essential for life but required in extremely small amounts
  80. an-
  81. aqua-
  82. co-
  83. -valent
  84. electro-
  85. iso-
  86. neutr-
  87. pro-
  88. alpha helix
    • the spiral shape resulting from the coiling of a polypeptide in a
    • protein's secondary structure
  89. amine
    an organic compound with one or more amino groups
  90. amino acid
    • an organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group;
    • serves as the monomer of proteins
  91. amino group
    • NH2: in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting
    • of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms
  92. anabolic steroid
    • a synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some
    • of its effects
  93. carbohydrate
    • a member of the class of biological molecules consisting
    • monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. used as energy
    • for cells and structure for plants.
  94. carbon skeleton
    • the chain of carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an
    • organic molecule
  95. carbonyl group
    • C=O: in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a carbon
    • atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom
  96. carboxyl group
    • COOH/O=C-OH: in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of
    • an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a
    • hydroxyl group
  97. carboxylic acid
    an organic compound containing a carboxyl group
  98. cellulose
    • a large polysaccharide composed of many glucose monomers linked into
    • cable-like fibrils that provide structural support in plant cell walls
  99. chitin
    • a structural polysaccharide found in many fungal cell walls and in the
    • exoskeletons of arthropods
  100. cholesterol
    • a steroid that is an important component of animal cell membranes and
    • that acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other steroids
    • such as hormones
  101. dehydration reaction
    • a chemical process in which two molecules become covalently bonded to
    • each other with the removal of water molecule. also called
    • condensation
  102. denaturation
    • a process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure
    • and hence function. can be caused by changes in pH or salt
    • concentration or by high temperature. also refers to the seperation of
    • the two strands of the DNA double helix.
  103. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    • a double-stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of
    • nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases
    • adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). capable of
    • replicating, is an organism's genetic material.
  104. disaccharide
    • a sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by a
    • dehydration reaction
  105. double helix
    • the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide
    • strands wound into a spiral shape
  106. enzyme
    • a protein or RNA molecule that serves as a bilogical catalyst,
    • changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed
    • into a different molecule in the process
  107. fat
    • a large lipid molecule made from an alcohol called glycerol and three
    • fatty acids; a triglyceride. most fats function as energy-storage
    • molecules.
  108. functional group
    • an assemblage of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of
    • organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions
  109. gene
    • a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific
    • nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses). most of the
    • genes of a eukaryote are located in its chromosomal DNA; a few are
    • carried by the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts
  110. glycogen
    • an extensively branched polysaccharideof many glucose monomers; serves
    • as an energy-storage molecue in liver and muscle cells; the animal
    • equivalent of starch
  111. hydrocarbon
    a chemical compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen
  112. hydrolysis
    • a chemical process in which polymers are broken down by the chemical
    • addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an
    • essential part of digestion
  113. hydrophilic
    • "water loving"; pertaining to polar, or charged, molecules (or parts
    • of molecules) that are soluble in water
  114. hydrophobic
    • "water fearing"; pertaining to nonpolar molecules (or parts of
    • molecules) that do not dissolve in water
  115. hydroxyl group
    • HO: in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a
    • hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom
  116. isomers
    • organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different
    • structures and, therefore, different properties
  117. lipid
    • an organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms
    • linked by nonpolar covalent bonds, making the compound mostly
    • hydrophobic. lipids include fats, phospholipids, and steroids and are
    • insoluble in water
  118. macromolecule
    • a giant molecule in a living organism formed by the joining of smaller
    • molecules: a protein, carbohydrate, lipid, or nucleic acid
  119. methyl group
    CH3: in an organic molecule, a carbon bonded to three hydrogens
  120. monomer
    a chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer
  121. monosaccharide
    • the simplest carbohydrate; simple sugar with a molecular formula that
    • is generally some multiple of CH2O. monosaccharides are the
    • building blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides
  122. nucleic acid
    • a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a
    • blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all
    • cellular structures and activities. the two types of nucleic acids are
    • RNA and DNA
  123. organic compound
    • a chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually
    • synthesized by cells
  124. peptide bond
    • the covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide;
    • formed by a dehydration reaction
  125. phosphate group
    • a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded
    • to four oxygen atoms
  126. phospholipid
    • a lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate
    • group, giving the molecule a nonpolar hydrophobic tail and a polar
    • hydrophilic head. phospholipids form bilayers that function as
    • biological membranes
  127. pleated sheet
    the folded arrangment of a polypeptide in a protein's secondary structure
  128. polymer
    • a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular
    • units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain
  129. polypeptide
    a polymer of amino acid linked by peptide bonds
  130. polysaccharide
    • a carbohydrate polymer consisting of hundreds to thousands of
    • monosaccharides linked by dehydration synthesis
  131. primary structure
    • the first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino
    • acids making up a polypeptide chain
  132. protein
    • a functional biological molecule consisting of one or more
    • polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure
  133. quternary structure
    • the fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the
    • association of two or more polypeptide subunits
  134. ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    • a type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose
    • sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine
    • (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein
    • synthesis and as the genome of some viruses
  135. saturated
    • pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains contain
    • the maximum number of hydrogens and therefore have no double covalent
    • bonds. saturated fats and fatty acids solidify at room temperature.
    • animal fats are generally saturated
  136. secondary structure
    • the second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of
    • coils or folds of a polypeptide chain
  137. starch
    • a storage polysaccharide found in the roots of plants and certain
    • other cells. a polymer of glucose
  138. steroid
    • a type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused
    • rings with various chemical groups attached; examples are cholesterol,
    • testosterone, and estrogen
  139. tertiary structure
    • the third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional
    • shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the
    • amino acids making up the chains
  140. unsaturated
    • pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains lack the
    • maximum hydrogen atoms and therefore have one or more double covalent
    • bonds. unsaturated fats and fatty acids do not solidify at room
    • temperature. fats from plants are generally unsaturated
  141. de-
    without or remove
  142. hyrdo-
  143. di-
  144. -sacchar
  145. carb-
  146. glyco
  147. helic-
    a spiral
  148. -lyse
  149. -philos
  150. iso-
  151. macro-
  152. mono-
  153. poly-
  154. quatr-
  155. terti-
  156. foods that aren't well digested
    • • Simple sugars:
    • Dried beans, peas, and lentils containing the tri- and
    • quatro-saccharides Raffinose and Stachyose
    • Lactose
    • Fructose
    • Sorbitol, found in fruit but also an artificial sweetener
    • • Starches
    • • Insoluble fiber
  157. basal body
    • a eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of
    • microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a
    • cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a 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"
    • />
  158. cell theory
    • the theory that all living things are composed of cells and that all
    • cells come from other cells
  159. cell wall
    • protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells,
    • bacteria, fungi, and some protists; protects the cell and helps
    • maintain its shape
  160. cellular metabolism
    the chemical activities of cells
  161. central vacuole
    • a membrane-enclosed sac occupying most of the interior of a mature
    • plant cell that help cells grow by absorbing water, stores chemicals
    • or waste products, and sometimes contains poinsons to protect against
    • predators
    • />
  162. centriole
    • a structure in an animal cell of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9
    • and 0 pattern. an animal usually has a centrosome with a pair of
    • centrioles involved in cell division
  163. chloroplast
    • an organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs
    • sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic molecules
    • (sugars) from CO2 and H2O
  164. chromatin
    • the complex of DNA and proteins that constitutes eukaryotic
    • chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form
    • taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing
    • />
  165. chromosome
    • a threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a
    • eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; also, the
    • main gene-carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell. chromosomes
    • consist of chromatin, a combination of DNA and protein
  166. cilia
    • a short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion formed from a
    • core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two single microtubules
    • covered by the cell's plasma membrane
    • />
  167. crista
    • an infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondria in which is
    • embedded the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the
    • synthesis of ATP
  168. cytoplasm
    • everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus;
    • consists of a semifluid medium and organelles
  169. cytoskeleton
    • a network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell;
    • includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
  170. electron microscope (EM)
    • an instrument that focuses an electron beam through, or onto the
    • surface of, a specimen. an electron microscope achieves a hundredfold
    • greater resolution than a light microscope.
  171. endomembrane system
    • a network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related
    • either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of
    • membranous vesicles
  172. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    • an extensive membranous network in a eukaryotic cell, continuous with
    • the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough)
    • and ribosome-free (smooth) regions
  173. endosymbiosis
    • a process by which the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic
    • cells probably evolved from symbiotic associations between small
    • proaryotic cells living inside larger cells
  174. eukaryotic cell
    • a type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other
    • membrane-enclosed organelles. all organisms except bacteria and
    • archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells
  175. extracellular matrix (ECM)
    • a substance in which the cells of an animal tissue are embedded;
    • consists of protein and polysaccharides
  176. flagellum
    • a long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion. the flagella of
    • prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in both structure and function. like
    • cilia, eukaryotic flagella have a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules
    • covered by the cell's plasma membrane
  177. glycoprotein
    • a macromolecule consisting of one or more polypeptides linked to short
    • chains of sugars
  178. golgi apparatus
    • an organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of membranous
    • sacs that modify, store, and ship products of the endoplasmic
    • reticulum
  179. granum
    • a stack of hollow disks formed of thylakoid membrane in a chloroplast.
    • grana are the sites where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and
    • converted to chemical energy during the light reactions of
    • photosynthesis
  180. integrins
    • a transmembrane protein that interconnects the extracellular matrix
    • and the cytoskeleton
    • />
  181. intermediate filament
    • an intermediate-sized protein fiber that is one of the three main
    • kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells.
    • intermediate filaments are ropelike, madeof fibrous 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"
    • />
  182. intermembrane space
    • one of the two fluid-filled internal compartments of the
    • mitochondrion. the intermembrane space is the narrow region between
    • the inner and outer membrane
  183. light microscope (LM)
    • an optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to
    • magnify images and project them into a viewer's eye or onto
    • photographic film
  184. lysosome
    • a digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells; contains hydrolytic enzymes
    • that digest the cell's food and water
  185. microfilament
    • the thinnest of the three main kinds of protein fibers making up the
    • cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a solid, helic rod composed of the
    • globular protein actin
    • />
  186. micrograph
    a photograph taken through a microscope
  187. microtubule
    • the thickest of the three main kinds of fibers making up the
    • cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a straight, hollow tube made of
    • globular protains called tubulins. microtubules form the basis of the
    • structure and the movement of cilia and flagella
    • />
  188. mitochondrial matrix
    the fluid contained within the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
  189. mitochondrion
    • an organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs.
    • enclosed by two concentric membranes, it is where most of the cell's
    • ATP is made
  190. nuclear envelope
    • a double membrane, perforated with pores, that encloses the nucleus
    • and seperates it from the rest of the eukaryotic cells
  191. nucleoid
    a dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell
  192. nucleolus
    • a structure within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cel where ribosomal RNA
    • is made and assembled with proteins imported from the cytoplasm to
    • make ribosomal subunits
  193. nucleus
    • the genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell that contains most of
    • the cell's DNA and controls the cell's activities
  194. organelle
    a membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within the cell
  195. peroxisome
    • an organelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various
    • substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide
  196. plasma membrane
    • the membrane that sets a cell off fromits surroundings and acts as a
    • selective barrier to the passage if ions and molecules into and out of
    • the cell; consists of a phospholipid bilayer in which are embedded
    • molecules of protein and cholesterol
  197. plasmodesma
    • an open channel in a plant cell wall through which strands of
    • cytoplasm connect from adjacent cells
  198. prokaryotic cell
    • a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other
    • membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains bacteria and
    • archaea
  199. ribosome
    • a cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two
    • subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the
    • cytoplasm. the ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleus
  200. rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
    • a network of interconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryotic cell's
    • cytoplasm. rough ER membranes are studded with ribosomes that make
    • membrane proteins and secretoy proteins
  201. scanning electron microscope (SEM)
    • a microscope that uses an electron beam to study the surface
    • architecture of a cell or other specimen
  202. smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
    • a network of interconnected membranous tubules in a eukaryotic cell's
    • cytoplasm. SER lacks ribosomes
  203. stroma
    • the fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane;
    • involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from CO2 and
    • H2O; sugars are made in the stroma by the enzymes of the
    • calvin cycle
  204. thylakoid
    • one of a number of disk-shaped membranous sacs inside a chloroplast.
    • thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll and the enzymes of the light
    • reaction photosynthesis. a stack of thylakoids is called a granum.
  205. transmission electron microscope (TEM)
    • a microscope that uses an electron beam to study the internal
    • structure of thinly sectioned specimens
  206. transport vesicle
    • a tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying mollecules
    • produced by the cell. the vesicle buds frok the endoplasmic reticulum
    • or golgi and eventually fuses with another membranous organelle or the
    • plasma membrane, releasing its contents
  207. vacuole
    • a membrane-enclosed sac that is part of the endomembrane system of a
    • eukaryotic cell, having diverse functions
  208. vesicle
    a sac made of memrane in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell
  209. active site
    • location on an enzyme where the substrate fits (weakly bonds) because
    • of molecular specificity
  210. active transport
    • proteins move materials through the cell membrane against the
    • concentration gradient while using energy from ATP
  211. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) function
    a nucleotide that is the main chemical energy source for cellular work
  212. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) structure
    nitrogenous base adenine bonded to three phosphate groups
  213. aquaporin
    • a transport protein in the plasma membrane of some plant or animal
    • cells that facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane
    • (osmosis)
  214. cellular respiration
    a process that uses stored chemical energy for usable energy
  215. chemical energy
    • energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a
    • form of potential energy
  216. coenzyme
    • an organic molecule serving as a cofactor. most vitamins function as
    • coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.
  217. cofactor
    • a nonprotein molecule or ioni that is required for the proper
    • functioning of an enzyme
  218. competitive inhibitor
    • a substance that ressembles an enzyme's normal substrate and blocks
    • the substrate from entering the enzyme's active site
  219. concentration gradient
    • an increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an
    • area. cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across
    • their membranes. when a gradient exists, substances tend to move from
    • where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
  220. diffusion
    • the spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration
    • gradient from where it is more concentrated to where it's less
    • concentrated
  221. endergonic reaction
    • an energy-requiring chemical reaction, which yields products with more
    • potential energy than the reactants.
  222. endocytosis
    • cellular uptake of molecules or particles via formation of new
    • vesicles from the plasma membrane
  223. energy coupling
    • in cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic
    • reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
  224. energy of activation (EA)
    • the amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical
    • reaction will start
  225. energy
    the capacity to perform work, or rearrange matter
  226. entropy
    a measure of disorder
  227. enzyme
    • a protein or RNA molecule that serves as a biological catalyst,
    • changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed
    • in the process
  228. exergonic reaction
    • an energy-releasing chemical reaction in which the reactants contain
    • more potential energy than the products
  229. exocytosis
    • the movement of material out of the cytoplasm of a cell by the fusion
    • of vesicles with the plasma membrane
  230. facilitated diffusion
    • the passage of a substance through a speciffic transport protein
    • across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient
  231. feedback inhibition
    a form of inhibition when a reaction is blocked by its products
  232. first law of thermodynamics
    the energy in the universe is constant; it cannot be destroyed or created
  233. fluid mosaic
    • a description of membrane structure, depicting a cellular membrane as
    • a mosaic of diverse protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer made
    • of phospholipids
  234. heat
    • thermal energy; the amount of energy associated with the movement of
    • the atoms and molecules in a body of matter. heat is energy in its
    • most random form
  235. hypertonic solution
    • the solution with the greater concentration of solutes; cells in this
    • solution will lose water to their surroundings
  236. hypotonic solution
    • the solution with the lower concentration of solutes; cells in this
    • solution will take up water from their surroundings
  237. induced fit
    • the change in shape of the active site of an enzyme, induced by the
    • entry of the substrate so that it binds more snugly to the substrate
  238. isotonic solution
    • a solution having the same solute concentration as the other solution,
    • thus having no effect on passage of water in or out of the cell
  239. kinetic energy
    • the energy of motion; the energy of a mass of matter that is moving.
    • moving matter does its work by imarting motion to other matter.
  240. metabolic pathway
    • a series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule
    • or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds
  241. metabolism
    the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
  242. noncompetitive inhibitor
    • a substance that binds to an enzyme in a place other than its active
    • site and changes the shape of the active site so the substrate doesn't
    • fit
  243. osmoregulation
    • method by which organisms regulate solute concentration and balance
    • the gain and loss of water
  244. osmosis
    the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
  245. passive transport
    • the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane without any
    • input of energy
  246. phagocytosis
    • a type of endocytosis when a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells,
    • or particles into its cytoplasm
  247. phosphorylation
    • the transpher of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule.
    • nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by
    • phosphorylation
  248. pinocytosis
    • cellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes
    • fluid and dissolved solutes into small mambranous vesicles
  249. potential energy
    • the energy that matter possesses because of its location or
    • arrangement. water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential
    • energy
  250. receptor-mediated endocytosis
    • the movement of specific molecule into a cell by the inward budding of
    • membranous vesicles. the vesicles contain proteins with receptor sites
    • specific  to the molecules being taken in.
  251. second law of thermodynamics
    energy conversions increase the disorder of the universe
  252. selective permeability
    • a property of biological membranes that allows some substances to
    • cross more easily than the others and blocks the passage of other
    • substances altogether. hardest for polar molecules to cross bilayer.
  253. substrate
    • a specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. each enzyme
    • recognizes only the specific substrate(s) of the reaction it catalyzes
  254. thermodynamics
    the study of energy transformation that occurs in a collection of matter
  255. tonicity
    • the ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to
    • gain or lose water
  256. sun
    ultimate source of energy
  257. photosynthetic organisms
    green plants, algae, photosynthetic protists and bacteria
  258. photosynthesis and cellular respiration energy cycle
    • />
  259. aerobically
    working with oxygen
  260. anaerobically
    working without oxygen
  261. cellular respiration
    the aerobic harvesting of energy from sugar by cells
  262. fast-twitch fibers
    • thick muscle fibers that have fewer mitochondria and myoglobin that
    • deplate their oxygen supply and switch to an energy harvesting process
    • that produces less ATP and more lactic acid
  263. slow-twitch fibers
    • muscle fibers with a lot of mitochondria and myoglobin that use
    • cellular respiration to produce ATP, as well as CO2 and
    • H2O
  264. myoglobin
    a carrier of O2 molecules that supplies mitochondria with oxygen
  265. cellular respiration chemical equation (with glucose)
    • C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6(O2)
    • = 6(CO2) + 6(H2O) + ATPs
  266. efficiency of cellular resperation (with glucose)
    produces 38 ATPs per glucose molecule = 40% glucose energy
  267. car engine efficiency
    25% gasoline energy to kinetic energy
  268. energy required by brain
    120g glucose and 15% total energy per day
  269. kilocalorie (kcal)
    quantity of heat needed to raise temperature of 1kg water by 1 degree C
  270. energy needed by average human
    2,200 kcal
  271. oxidation reduction (redox) reaction
    the movement of electrons from one molecule to another
  272. oxidation
    • loss of electrons from a substance
    • loss of hydrogen from a substance
  273. reduction
    • addition of electrons to a substance
    • addition of hydrogen to a substance
  274. dehydrogenase
    • important to the oxidation of organic molecules by stripping them of
    • two hydrogen molecules
  275. NAD+
    • the coenzyme of dehydrogenase from the vitamin niacin that picks up
    • the two electrons from the hydrogen dehydrogenase takes away;
    • transports elctrons. on proton, H+, is released
  276. dehydrogenase and NAD+ working in a pair of redox reactions
    • occuring simultaneous
    • />
  277. electron transport chain
    • a series of elctron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during
    • the redox reactions that release their potential energy used to make
    • ATP; located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, the thylakoid
    • membranes of chloroplasts, and the plasma membrane of prokaryotes
    • />
  278. cellular respiration: stage 1
    • glycolysis; occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid and breaks glucose into
    • pyruvate. produces small amounts of ATP and sends elcetrons to the
    • third stage of cellular respiration
  279. pyruvate
    a three-carbon compound produced as part of the breakdown of glucose
  280. cellular respiration: stage 2
    • citric acid cycle; takes place within the mitochondria and decomposes
    • a derivative of pyruvate inro CO2, completing the break
    • down of glucose. produces small amounts of ATP and sends elcetrons to
    • the third stage of cellular respiration
  281. cellular respiration: stage 3
    • oxidative phodphorylation; sends electrons down the elctron transport
    • chain, which pumps hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial
    • membrane into the intermembrane space. chemiosmosis occurs and ATP is
    • produced
  282. chemiosmosis
    • in cellular resperation, the potential energy of the concentration
    • gradient of hydrogen ions drives the diffusion of H+
    • through ATP synthase. this causes it to spin, which produces enough
    • energy to phosphorylize ADP
  283. cellular respiration diagram
    • />
  284. autotroph
    • plants, algae, and many bacteria that make their own food (mostly
    • photosynthesis) without consuming other organisms or their molecules
  285. C3 plant
    • a plant that uses the calvin cycle for the intitial steps that
    • incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a 3-carbon
    • compound as the first stable intermediate
  286. C4 plant
    • a plant the prefaces the calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate
    • CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which
    • supplies CO2 for the calvin cycle
  287. calcin cycle
    • the second of two phases of photosynthesis; a cyclic series of
    • chemical reactions that occur in the stroma of a chloroplast, using
    • the carbon in CO2 and the ATP and NADPH produced by the
    • light reactions to make the energy-rich molecule G3P
  288. CAM plant
    • a plant that uses an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions
    • in which CO2 entering open storma during the night is
    • converted to organic acids, which release CO2 for the
    • calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed
  289. carbon fixation
    • the incorporation of carbon from atmospheric CO2 into the
    • carbon in organic compounds. during photosyntheis in a C3
    • plant, carbon is fixed into a three-carbon suger sugar as it enters
    • the calvin cycle. in C4 and CAM plants, carbon is fixed
    • into a four-carbon sugar
  290. chlorophyll
    • a green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and
    • certain prokaryotes. chlorophyll a can participate directly
    • in light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy
  291. electromagnetic spectrum
    • the entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelengths from less than
    • a nanometer to more than a kilometer
  292. global warming
    • a slow but steady rise in earth's surface temperature, caused by
    • incresing concentration of greenhouse gases (such as CO2
    • and CH4) in the atmosphere
  293. granum
    • a stack of hollow disks formed of thylakoid membrane in a chloroplast.
    • grana are the sites where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and
    • converted to chemical energy during the light reactions of
    • photosynthesis
  294. greenhouse effect
    • the warming of the atmosphere caused by CO2,
    • CH4, and other gases that absorb infared radiation and slow
    • its escape from earth's surface
  295. light reactions
    • the first of two stages in photosynthesis; the steps in which solar
    • energy is absorbed and converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP
    • and NADPH. the light reactions power the sugar-producing calvin cycle
    • but produce no sugar themselves
  296. mesophyll
    • the green tissue in the interior of a leaf; a lelaf's ground tissue
    • system; the main site of photosynthesis
  297. photoautotroph
    • an organism that obtains energy from sunlight and carbon from
    • CO2 from photosynthesis
  298. photon
    • a fixed quantity of light energy. the shorter the wavelength of light,
    • the greater its energy
  299. photophosphorylation
    • the production of ATP by chemiosmosis during the light reactions of
    • photosynthesis
  300. photorespiration
    • in a plant cell, the breakdown of a two-carbon compound produced by
    • the calvin cycle. the calvin cycle produces the two-carbon compound,
    • instead of its usual three-carbon product G3P, when leaf cells fix
    • O2, instead of CO2. produces no sugar molecules
    • or ATP
  301. photosynthesis
    • the process by which plants, autotrophic protists, and some bacteria
    • use light energy to make sugars and other organic food molecules from
    • CO2 and H2O
  302. photosystem
    • a light-capturing unit of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane,
    • consisting of a reaction center complex surrounded by numerous
    • light-harvesting complexes
  303. producer
    • an organism that makes organic food molecules from CO2,
    • H2O, and other inorganic raw materials; a plant, agla, or
    • autotrophic prokaryote
  304. reaction center complex
    • in a photosystem, the chlorophyll a molecules and the primary
    • electron acceptor that trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis.
    • the chlorophyll donates an electron excited by light energy to the
    • primary electron acceptor, which passes and electron to the ETC
  305. stoma
    • a pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of a leaf. when
    • stomata are open, CO2 enters a lead, and water and
    • O2 exit. a plant conserves water when its stomata are
    • closed
  306. stroma
    • the fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane;
    • involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from CO2 and
    • water; sugars are made in the stroma by the enzymes of the calvin
    • cycle
  307. thylakoid
    • one of the number of disk-shaped sacs inside a chloroplast. thylakoid
    • membranes contain chlorophyll and the enzymes of the light reactions
    • of photosynthesis. a stack of thylakoids is called a granum
  308. uses for G3P
    • cellular respiration
    • cellulose
    • starch
    • other organic compounds
  309. wavelength
    • the distance between crests of adjacent waves, such as those of the
    • electromagnetic spectrum
  310. acytel coenzyme A
    • the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration;
    • formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme
  311. alcohol fermentation
    the conversion of pruvate from glycolysis to CO2 and ethyl alcohol
  312. ATP synthase
    • a cluster of several membrane proteins that function in chemiosmosis
    • with adjacent ETC's, using the energy of an H+ concentration gradient
    • to make ATP
  313. cellular respiration
    • the aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the
    • energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as
    • glucose, and the storage of potential energy in a form that cells can
    • use to perform work; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and
    • oxidative phosphorylation (the ETC and chemiosmosis)
  314. chemiosmosis
    • energy-coupling mechanics that uses the energy from H+ gradients
    • across membranes to phosphorylate ADP; powers most ATP synthesis in
    • cells
  315. citric acid cycle
    • the metabolic cycle fueled by acytel coA formed after glycolysis in
    • cellular respiration. completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose
    • molecules to CO2. the cycle occurs in the matrix of
    • mitochondria and supplies most of the NADH molecules that carry energy
    • to the ETC's. the second major stage of cell resp.
  316. dehydrogenase
    • an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction during which one or more
    • hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule
  317. electron transport chain
    • a series of electron carrier molecules during the redox reactions that
    • release energy used to make ATP; located in the inner membrane of
    • mitochondria, the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, and the plasma
    • membranes of porkaryotes
  318. facultative anaerobe
    • an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if O2 is
    • present, but that switches to fermentation when oxygen is absent
  319. glycolysis
    • the multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two
    • molecules of pyruvate; the first stage of cellular respiration in all
    • organisms; occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid
  320. intermediate
    • one of the compounds that form between the initial reactant and the
    • final product in a metabolic pathway, such as between glucose and
    • pyruvate in glycolysis
  321. kilocalorie
    • a quantity of heat equal to 1,000 caloires. used to measure the energy
    • content of food, usually called a Calorie
  322. lactic acid fermentation
    the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of CO2
  323. NAD+
    • nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; a coenzyme that can accept
    • electrons during the redox reactions of cellular metabolism. the plus
    • sign indicates that the mulecules is oxidized and ready to pick up
    • hydrogens; the reduced, hydrogen- (electron-) carrying form is NADH
  324. obligate anaerobes
    • an organism that only carries out fermentation; such organisms cannot
    • use oxygen and also may be poisoned by it
  325. redox reaction
    • short for oxidation-reduction; a chemical reaction in which electrons
    • are lost from one substance (oxidation) and added to another
    • (reduction) oxidation and reduction always occur together
  326. reduction
    • the gain of electrons by a substance involved in a redox reaction;
    • always accompanies oxidation
  327. substrate-level phosphorylation
    • the formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate
    • group to ADP from an organic molecule (for example, one of the
    • intermediates in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle)
  328. rotenone
    a pesticide that blocks the ETC near its start
  329. cyanide
    • a poison that blocks the passage of electrons to the oxygen at the
    • fourth protein complex
  330. carbon monoxide
    • a poison produced from incomplete burning that blocks the passage of
    • electrons to the oxygen at the fourth protein complex
  331. DNP
    • dinitrophenal; an uncoupler poinson that makes the membrane leaky to
    • H+ ions, destroying the H+ gradient
  332. oligomycin
    an antibiotic that blocks the passage of H+ through ATP synthase
  333. anaphase
    • the fourth stage of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids seperate
    • from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes
    • arrives at each of the two poles of the cell1
  334. anchorage dependence
    the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface
  335. asexual reproduction
    • the creation of offspring by a single parent, without the
    • participation of a sperm and egg
  336. autosome
    • a chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an
    • organism; in mammals, for example, any chromosome other than X or Y
  337. benign tumor
    an abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body
  338. binary fission
    • a means of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a
    • single cell, divides into two individuals of about equal size
  339. carcinoma
    • cancer that originates in the coverings of the body, such as skin or
    • the lining of the intestinal tract
  340. cell cycle
    • an ordered sequence of events that extends from the time a eukaryotic
    • cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own
    • division into two cells
  341. cell cycle control system
    • a cyclically operating set of proteins that triggers and coordinates
    • events in the eukaryotic cell cycle
  342. cell division
    the reproduction of a cell
  343. haploid cell
    • in the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell
    • containing a single set of chromosomes; an n cell
  344. homologous chromosomes
    • the two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell.
    • homologous chromosomes are of the same length, centromere position,
    • and staining pattern and possess genes for the same characteristics at
    • corresponding loci. one homologous chromosome is inherited from the
    • organism's father, the other from the mother
  345. interphase
    • the period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not actually
    • dividing. interphase constitutes the majority of the time spent in the
    • cell cycle
  346. inversion
    • a change in a chromosome resulting from reattachment of a chromosome
    • fragment to the original chromosome, but in a reverse direction.
    • mutagens and errors duiring meiosis can cause inversions.
  347. karyotype
    • a display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell,
    • arranged by size and centomere position.
  348. nondisjunction
    • an accident of meiosis or mitosis in which a pair of homologous
    • chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to seperate at
    • anaphase
  349. prometaphase
    • the second stage of mitosis, during which the nuclear envelope
    • fragments and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of
    • the sister chromatids
  350. prophase
    • the first stage of mitosis, during which the chromatin condenses to
    • form sister chromatids visible with a light microscope and the mitotic
    • spindle begins to form, but the nucleus is still intact
  351. sarcoma
    cancer of the supportive tissues, such as bone, cartilage, and muscle
  352. sex chromosome
    a chromosome that determines whether an individual is male or female
  353. cell plate
    • a double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between
    • which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
  354. centromere
    • the region of a duplicared chromosome where two sister chromatids are
    • joined and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and
    • meiosis. the centromere divides at the onset of anaphase during
    • mitosis and anaphase II  during meiosis
  355. centrosome
    • material in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that gives rise to
    • microtubules; important in mitosis and meiosis; also called
    • microtubule-organizing center
  356. chiasma
    • the microscopically visible site where crossing over has occurred
    • between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of
    • meiosis
  357. chromatin
    • the complex of DNA and proteins that constitutes eukaryotic
    • chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very ectended form
    • taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing
  358. chromosome
    • a threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a
    • eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; also, the
    • main gene-carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell. chromosomes
    • consist of chromatin, a combination of DNA and protein
  359. cleavage
    • 1. cytokinesis in animal cells and in some protists, characterized by
    • pinching in of the plasma membrane
    • 2. in animal development, the succession of rapid cell divisions
    • without cell growth that converts the animal zygote into a ball of
    • cells
  360. cleavage furrow
    • the first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell;
    • a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate
  361. crossing over
    • the exchange of segments between chromatids of homologous chromosomes
    • during synapsis in prophase I of meiosis; also, the exchange of
    • segments between DNA molecules in prokaryotes
  362. cytokinesis
    • the division of the cytoplasm to form two seperate daughter cells.
    • cytokinesis usually occurs during telophase of mitosis. mitosis and
    • cytokinesis make up the mitotic phase of the cell cycle
  363. leukemia
    • a type of cancer of the blood-forming tissues, characterized by and
    • excessive production of white blood cells and an abnormally high
    • number of them in the blood; cancer of the bone marrow cells that
    • produce leukocytes
  364. life cycle
    • the entire sequence of stages in the life of an organism, from the
    • adults of one generation to the adults of the next
  365. locus
    • the particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome. homologous
    • chromosomes have corresponding gene loci
  366. lymphoma
    cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells
  367. malignant tumor
    • an abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and
    • other pasrts of the body; a cancerous tissue
  368. sexual reproduction
    • the creation of offspring by fusion of two haploid sex cells
    • (gametes), forming a diploid zygote
  369. sister chromatid
    one of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell
  370. somatic cell
    • any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell or a
    • cell that develops into a sperm or egg
  371. telophase
    • the fifth and final stage of mitosis, during which daughter nuclei
    • form at the two poles of a cell. telophase usually occurs together
    • with cytokinesis
  372. tetrad
    • a paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister
    • chromatids. tetrads form during pophase I of meiosis
  373. deletion
    • the loss of one or more nucleotides from a gene by mutation;    the
    • loss of a fragment of a chromosome
  374. density-dependent inhibition
    • the arrest of cell division that occurs when cells grown in a
    • laboratory dish touch one another
  375. diploid cell
    • in an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two
    • homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent; a
    • 2n cell
  376. Down syndrome
    •  a human genetic disorder resulting from the presence of an extra
    • chromosome 21; characterized by heart and respiratory defects and
    • varying degrees of mental retardation
  377. duplication
    • repetition of part of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a
    • fragment from a homologous chromosome; can result from an error in
    • meiosis or from mutagenesis
  378. fertilization
    • the union of the nucleus of a sperm cell with the nucleus of an egg
    • cell, producing a zygote
  379. gamete
    • a sex cell; a haploid egg or sperm. the union of two gametes of
    • opposite sex produces a zygote
  380. genetic recombination
    • the production, by crossing over and/or independent assortment of
    • chromosomes during meiosis, of offspring with allele combinations
    • different from those in the parents. the term may also be used more
    • specifically to mean the production by crossing over of eukaryotic and
    • prokaryotic chromosomes with gene combinations different from those in
    • the original chromosomes
  381. genome
    a complete haploid set of an organism's genes; an oganism's genetic material
  382. growth factor
    a protein secreted by certain body cells that simulates other cells to divide
  383. meiosis
    • in a sexually reproducing organism, the division of a single diploid
    • nucleus into four haploid dughter nuclei. meiosis and cytokeinesis
    • produce haploid gametes from diploid cells in the reproductive organs
    • of the parents
  384. metastasis
    the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
  385. mitosic phase (M phase)
    • the part of the cell cycle when the nucleus is divided, its
    • chromosomes are distributed to the daughter nuclei, and the cytoplasm
    • divided producing two daughter cells
  386. mitotic spindle
    • a football-shaped structure formed of microtubules and associated
    • proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during
    • mitosis and meiosis
  387. mitosis
    • the division of a single nucleus into two gentically identical
    • daughter nuclei. mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic phase of
    • the cell cycle
  388. translocation
    • a change in a chromosome resulting from a chromosomal fragment
    • attaching to a nonhomologous chromosome; can occur as a result of an
    • error in meiosis or from mutagenesis
  389. trisomy 21
    the occurance of an extra chromosome 21, causing Down syndrome
  390. tumor
    an abnormal mass of cells that form within otherwise normal tissue
  391. zygote
    • the fertilized egg, which is diploid, that results from the union of a
    • sperm cell nucleus and an egg cell nucleus