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Outline Whittaker’s 5 kingdom scheme.
recognized an additional kingdom for the Fungi. Included Monera ex sponges, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia.
How was it (5 kingdom scheme) changed by the work of Carl Woese?
Divided prokaryotic, the Monera into Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. That Eukarya is more closely related to Archaea genetically but morphologically Archaea is more closely related to Bacteria
What molecule did Woese use in his phylogenetic analysis?
ribosomal RNA molecule
Has Woese’s phylogeny been corroborated?
Corroborated with the 5 Kingdom scheme and came up narrowed down from the 6 kingdom scheme to the top three kingdoms we study. Which are Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria.
Review major characteristics of (and differences
among) the 3 Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
- Bacteria has no nuclear envelope or dna with histones. they have cellular chromosomes,
- some organelles, flagella that spins in circles, is unicellular. their cell walls have peptidoglycan. RNA translates their dna. transduction and
- has no nuclear envelope. They have DNA with histones and circular dna. no organelles, flagella. all unicellular. cell wall no peptidoglycan. DNA and RNA for information processing. transduction and conjugation.
- Eukarya has nuclear envelope, histones in DNA. no circular chromosomes. flagella but not circular movements, but back and forth. multicellular. sexual
- reproduction and some transduction. cell wall made by cellulose or chitin. RNA complex.
Are prokaryotes monophyletic?
yes because on the tree they branch out away from the other 2 domains. their synapomorphy is peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
When did prokaryotes first evolve?
3.5 billion years ago in the most primitive states.
What are stromatolites?
- layered structures of large masses of bacteria that are formed in shallow water by trapping and binding the microorganisms. especially cyanobacteria. they are one the most ancient reconds of life on earth mostly from the
- Precambrian era. fossilized microbes.
What is the evidence supporting the involvement of bacteria in producing our present day atmosphere?
oxygenic photosynthesis and the oldest organisms to be known. after they evolved to be photosynthetic they created oxygen into the atmosphere and gave rise to the eukaroyotes to the problem.
What taxon was probably involved? (in creating our current day atmosphere
Cyanobacteria, a photosynthetic bacteria
What is nitrogen fixation in plants?
- change the nitrogen into NH3 or nitrate to use.
- some cyanobacteria can do this, nodules of special
- root structures can do this too. They use them to grow and build proteins, as electron acceptors and hence cycle nitrogen.
Review bacterial morphological features
What are extremophiles? What taxa qualify as extremophiles?
Species that live in high salinities, high/low temperatures, high/low pH, great depths and pressures, anaerobic environments, archea and bacteria
How do bacteria reproduce?
binary fission and then mitosis
Review metabolic diversity across prokaryotes:
be able to distinguish among the six carbon/energy categories in Table 28.3.
- Phototrophs= light feeders, ex ATP via top of electron transport chains
- Chemoorganotrophs= organic molecules with sugars, fatty acids or starch, ATP via cellular respiration or fertilization pathways
- Chemolithotrophs=rock feeders, inorganic molecules ex NH3 or CH4. Cellular respiration
- autotrophs=self feeders, produce their own food
- heterotroph=other feeders, get food from other organism
Can you assign the species listed in Table 28.4 to its appropriate category in Table 28.3?
What is the domain Eukarya?
Animals, plants, fungi are eukaryotes. but also contains prokaryotes.
What synapomorphies support it?
nuclear envelope (nucleus) and cytoskeleton
Distinguish between mitosis and meiosis.
- mitosis is asexual reproduction. nuclear division that give 2 daughter cells identical to the parent cell. meiosis is halving the chromosome number for gametes which
- provide sexual reproduction, two step process, reduction division is another name for this
Define homologous chromosomes. How are they similar? How do they differ?
in a diploid organism, chromosomes that are similar in size, shape and gene content.
What is the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotes?
Where their mitochondria and chloroplasts came from.
Who promoted endosymbiotic theory
What evidence supports endosymbiotic theory?
- Mitochondria DNA ismore similarto the bacteria that the anerobic cells engulfed.
- They are similar in shape as well. Same reasoning withcyanobacteria and chloroplasts.
Mitochondria are most closely related to what group of bacteria? To what group are chloroplasts most closely related?
Do protists form a monophyletic group?
No they are paraphyletic
What group (or groups) should be included to make the protists be monophyletic?
Fungi, animals and land plants
Distinguish structure of the prokaryotic vs.
prokaryotic flagellum moves circular rotations while eukaryotic flagellum has microtubles and it moves back and forth. Eukaryotic flagellum also contains a 9+2 microtubules arrangement. They are homoplastic with one another since they look alike but aren’t alike genetically
What is the principal synapomorphy for Plantae?
Chloroplasts from cyanobacteria via endosymbiosis
Are the green algae monophyletic?
Which green algal lineage is most closely related to land plants?
No they are paraphyletic Charophyceae
What are the major groups of land plants?
Non-vascular plants, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms
Are land plants monophyletic?
What are the major key innovations that allowed
green plants to diversify on land?
- Cuticle, pores initially. Then stomata and
- vascular tissues
What is the most derived & diverse group of land plants?
Angiosperms, the flowering plants
What is the primary key innovation for this group? (flowering plants)
Animal pollinates, encased ovules, pollen
review this one, it says primary!