CHEM 101 chp 6-8 test

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CHEM 101 chp 6-8 test
2012-03-30 15:24:57
CHEM 101

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  1. Reactants
    • Species present before the reaction.
    • Materials to the left of the chemical equation.
  2. Products
    • Species present AFTER the reaction.
    • Materials on the right side of the chemical equation.
  3. Avogadro's Number
    • The number of particles in a mol.
    • 6.02 * 10^23
  4. Mole
    The amount of substance that contains Avogadro's number.
  5. Formula Mass
    The average/sum mass of a formula units of a substance.
  6. Molar Mass
    The mass of one mole of a substance.
  7. Molar Volume of a gas
    The volume occupied by 1 mol of an gas at STP (standard temperature & pressure)
  8. Finding Molecular Mass
    • Add up the mass of each element.
    • MoO^3
    • Mo- 96 * 1
    • O- 16* 3= 48
    • Molecular mass is 96+48= 144g
  9. Stoichiometry
    Mathmatics of Chemistry
  10. Boyles Law
    • At constant temperature, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.
    • *When temp is constant
    • - if increased P, decrease V
    • -if decreased P, increase V
  11. Charles Law
    • At constant pressure, the volume of a gas is Directly proportional to its absolute temp.
    • *When pressure is constant
    • -increase T, increase V
    • -decrease T, decrease V
  12. Ideal Gas Law
    • PV=nRT
    • P- pressure (atm)
    • V- volume (Liters)
    • n- number of moles
    • R- constant- .0821
    • T- temperature (K)
  13. Molarity
    moles of solute/ liters of solution
  14. Acids
    • According to Arrhenius, acids form hydrogen ions (H+)
    • Acids taste sour, turn litmus red, react with bases to form water and salt.
  15. Bases
    • According to Arrhenius, bases produce hydroxide ions. (OH-)
    • Bases are bitter, turn litmus blue, reacts with acids to form water and salt.
  16. Arrhenius Theory
    • Believes that acids in an aqueous solution form hydrogen ions (H+). and bases produce hydroxide ions (OH-).
    • In the equation, the products get H+ or OH- alone.
    • Limitations- H+ doesn't really exist.
  17. Bronsted- Lowry Theory
    • Says:
    • Acids are proton donor, and
    • Bases are proton acceptor.
    • IN the equation, H^3O is a product for acids.
    • This is more realistic than Arrhenius.
  18. Strong vs Weak acids
    • Strong acid- ionize/reacts completely in water to form H+ and an anion.
    • Weak acid- only partially ionizes/reacts with water
  19. Strong vs Weak bases
    • Strong base- completely iionizes in water to form OH-.
    • Weak base- only slightly ionizes.
  20. Neutralization
    The reation between an acid and a base, giving a product of water and salt.
  21. pH and pOH scale
    pH- acidic to basic 1-14

    • pOH- the opposite
    • basic to acidic 1-14
    • What is the pH of 1*10^5? pH=5
  22. Oxidation
    • Gain Oxygen
    • Lose Hydrogen
    • Lose Electrons
  23. Reduction
    • Lose Oxygen
    • Gain Hydrogen
    • Gain Electrons
  24. Oxidizing Agent
    What causes the Oxidation
  25. Reducing Agent
    What causes the Reduction
  26. Electrodes
    Pieces of metal where electrons are transferred.
  27. Anode
    Electrode where oxidation occurs
  28. Cathode
    Electrode where reduction occurs
  29. Photosynthesis
    The reduction of carbon dioxide