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- Species present before the reaction.
- Materials to the left of the chemical equation.
- Species present AFTER the reaction.
- Materials on the right side of the chemical equation.
- The number of particles in a mol.
- 6.02 * 10^23
The amount of substance that contains Avogadro's number.
The average/sum mass of a formula units of a substance.
The mass of one mole of a substance.
Molar Volume of a gas
The volume occupied by 1 mol of an gas at STP (standard temperature & pressure)
Finding Molecular Mass
- Add up the mass of each element.
- Mo- 96 * 1
- O- 16* 3= 48
- Molecular mass is 96+48= 144g
Mathmatics of Chemistry
- At constant temperature, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.
- *When temp is constant
- - if increased P, decrease V
- -if decreased P, increase V
- At constant pressure, the volume of a gas is Directly proportional to its absolute temp.
- *When pressure is constant
- -increase T, increase V
- -decrease T, decrease V
Ideal Gas Law
- P- pressure (atm)
- V- volume (Liters)
- n- number of moles
- R- constant- .0821
- T- temperature (K)
moles of solute/ liters of solution
- According to Arrhenius, acids form hydrogen ions (H+)
- Acids taste sour, turn litmus red, react with bases to form water and salt.
- According to Arrhenius, bases produce hydroxide ions. (OH-)
- Bases are bitter, turn litmus blue, reacts with acids to form water and salt.
- Believes that acids in an aqueous solution form hydrogen ions (H+). and bases produce hydroxide ions (OH-).
- In the equation, the products get H+ or OH- alone.
- Limitations- H+ doesn't really exist.
Bronsted- Lowry Theory
- Acids are proton donor, and
- Bases are proton acceptor.
- IN the equation, H^3O is a product for acids.
- This is more realistic than Arrhenius.
Strong vs Weak acids
- Strong acid- ionize/reacts completely in water to form H+ and an anion.
- Weak acid- only partially ionizes/reacts with water
Strong vs Weak bases
- Strong base- completely iionizes in water to form OH-.
- Weak base- only slightly ionizes.
The reation between an acid and a base, giving a product of water and salt.
pH and pOH scale
pH- acidic to basic 1-14
- pOH- the opposite
- basic to acidic 1-14
- What is the pH of 1*10^5? pH=5
- Gain Oxygen
- Lose Hydrogen
- Lose Electrons
- Lose Oxygen
- Gain Hydrogen
- Gain Electrons
What causes the Oxidation
What causes the Reduction
Pieces of metal where electrons are transferred.
Electrode where oxidation occurs
Electrode where reduction occurs
The reduction of carbon dioxide