bio 130

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lacythecoolest
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144622
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bio 130
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2012-03-30 16:55:13
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lab exam 12 14 15
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bio 130 lab exam 12, 14, 15
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  1. Environmental factors that affect plant growth
    • gravity
    • light
    • temperature
    • water
    • mineral nutrients
  2. hormones
    • auxins
    • abscisic acid
    • cytokinins
    • gibberellins
    • ethylene
  3. * a hormone that enables plants to respond to seasonal changes in day length
    phytochrome
  4. light stimulates a conversion of phytochrome in an inactive form known as
    phytochrome 660 to phytochrome 730
  5. what happens in the dark to P730?
    tissue levels gradually decline and P660 gradually accumulates
  6. the declination and accumulation of P660 and P730 results in what?
    a system that responds the length of the night
  7. red light wave length
    660nm
  8. far-red radiation wave length
    730nm
  9. unusual growth pattern in which the petioles of leaves curve downward due to ethylene
    epinasty
  10. simple way to study inheritance is by breeding parents that differ in a single characteristic
    monohybrid cross
  11. particular characteristic of an organism
    trait
  12. having only one form of a gene
    homozygous
  13. one of two or more known forms of a gene
    allele
  14. breeds parents that differ in two ways
    dihybrid cross
  15. having two different forms of a gene for a trait
    heterozygous
  16. the allele that is expressed
    dominant
  17. the allele that is masked
    recessive
  18. recessive phenotype is observed only in
    homozygous individuals
  19. where the heterozygous individuals do exhibit an intermediate phenotype
    incomplete dominance
  20. What is a plant that is easily propagated by both sexual and asexula means?
    coleus
  21. observable trait
    phenotype
  22. combination of genes that determines the inheritance of trait
    genotype
  23. results from the effects of its genotype interacting with its environment
    a plants phenotype
  24. directed evolution
    breeding
  25. selecting the most desirable plants and sowing their seeds to produce the next generation
    mass selection
  26. chromosome behavior at mitosis
    cytogenetics
  27. phenotypic comparisions of parents and offspring
    mendelian genetics
  28. response to selection
    population genetics
  29. plants containing genes from different species
    transgenics
  30. widely grown in commercial crop production
    transgenic plants
  31. isolation of DNA from plant tissues
    DNA extraction
  32. What can DNA be used for once extracted from cell?
    • * structure studies
    • * identification of genes
    • * variability
    • * gene expression
  33. What do we use to isolate the DNA from the onion?
    ethanol
  34. the DNA molecule is composed of four different subunits called
    nucleotides
  35. chemical that protects the DNA from being degraded by enzymes
    EDTA
  36. enzymes that degrade DNA
    nucleases
  37. what is DNA insoluble in?
    ethanol
  38. the technique that separates fragments of DNA according to size
    agarose gel electrophoresis
  39. the phosphate groups on DNA molecules confer what kind of charge?
    negative
  40. Whats the dye used in agarose gel electrophoresis?
    SYBR safe dye
  41. what light is used to see DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis?
    fluoresces blue light
  42. what are the workhorses of genetic engineering research?
    bacteria
  43. small circular pieces of DNA
    plasmids
  44. what does bacteria take up and express?
    plasmids
  45. In the Transgenic Organisms experiment what did the bacteria take up?
    GFP of a jellyfish
  46. What is GFP?
    the protein part of a jellyfish that makes them bioluminescent
  47. Whats used to see the bacteria that absorbed the GFP gene?
    black light
  48. What does the presence of aequorin with GFP do in jellyfish?
    spontaneously emits blue light in the presence of O2 and Ca+
  49. * bacteria cannot use for food
    * uneffected by temperature
    * soldifying material
    * made like jello
    Auger
  50. pulls with electricity
    electrophoresis
  51. (of plants, as the dicotyledons) having stems that grow by the addition of an annual layer of wood to the outside beneath the bark.
    pertaining to plants having such stems.
    exogenous
  52. growing or developing from within; originating within.
    Biochemistry . pertaining to the metabolism of nitrogenous elements of cells and tissues.
    endogenous
  53. to absorb or soak up, as water, light, or heat:
    Plants imbibe moisture from the soil.
  54. the first leaf above the ground, forming a sheath around the stem tip.
    coleoptile
  55. growing old; aging.
    senescence
  56. increased growth on the upper surface of an organ or part, causing it to bend downward.
    epinasty
  57. a growth regulator used in major horticultural crops and cereals. It promotes ripening in tomatoes,
    ethrel
  58. A genetically determined characteristic or condition
    trait
  59. One member of a pair or series of genes that occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome
    allele
  60. 1. Having different alleles at one or more corresponding chromosomal loci.
    heterozygous
  61. The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences.
    phenotype
  62. The genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms.
    The combination of alleles located on homologous chromosomes that determines a specific characteristic or trait.
    genotype
  63. The branch of biology that deals with heredity and the cellular components, particularly chromosomes, associated with heredity.
    Cytogenetics
  64. Of, relating to, or being an organism whose genome has been altered by the transfer of a gene or genes from another species or breed
    Transgenic
  65. Any of several enzymes, such as endonucleases and exonucleases, that hydrolize nucleic acids.
    nucleases
  66. An agent, such as a chemical, ultraviolet light, or a radioactive element, that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism.
    mutagen
  67. A circular, double-stranded unit of DNA that replicates within a cell independently of the chromosomal DNA.
    plasmid
  68. Emission of visible light by living organisms such as the firefly and various fish, fungi, and bacteria
    bioluminescent
  69. the study of allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the four main evolutionary processes: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and gene flow. It also takes into account the factors of population subdivision and population structure. It attempts to explain such phenomena as adaptation and speciation.
    Population Genetics
  70. the field of biology and genetics that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. The field studies how the genes are transferred from generation to generation
    Molecular Genetics
  71. the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
    These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes or transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA.
    * by being transcribed into RNA, and this RNA is then translated into protein
    Gene expression

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